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Politics and Public Administration
POL 128
Laurinda Hartt- Fournier

Dichotomize - divide into two opposing groups or kinds  you’re either with us or against us Marginalization - the importance of attention that needs to be given to actual social issues such as homelessness, poverty, the environment Interpellation – The process whereby those in power educate and constrain those not in power, the masses, from taking power Repressive State Apparatuses (RSA) – They exist to reinforce accepted norms and take action against those who don’t follow the norms. Example: Government, police, military, the courts, prisons Ideological State Apparatuses (ISA) – To teach society norms and beliefs that are one sided. Example: Family, school, church, political parties, the media (film, television, radio, internet etc.) ISA & RSA Applied to movies  Les Ordres: Political parties, government, police, military, prison  Maurice Richard: Family, media  Double Happiness: Family, media(?)  Kanehsatake: Media, government, police, military Traits of CHNFS 1. Narrative - Dramatization of reality; uses third person perspective; presents an ideal fantasy rather than actual realities of society 2. Linear Narrative – Story moves through several crisis to a climax and then a conclusion which includes a clear resolution of all major problems (Happy Endings) 3. Hero Vs. Villain – Usually males; Good vs. Evil; deep problems of society being resolved through the actions of hero 4. Product of Hollywood studio system – Its familiar conventions and traditions which are used to attract large audiences and offend the least  Film Genres – Conventions that audience is familiar with in which they come in expecting to see  The star system – Use of popular movie stars to bring in crowds  Production Code – Hollywood’s Self-Censorship in movies through 1934-1968  Rating Systems – introduced in 1968 to protect viewers of objectionable material, but in fact it was used as a public relations tool 5. Films are focused on singular an individual - even films where teams are prevalent, singular characters, or a singular character “saves the day” 6. Repetitive Norms – Society’s norms are reproduced and reinforced rather than be challenged. They choose not to challenge the norms because they will offend audiences and thus reduce revenues and create controversy, possible government interference even. 7. White Power – White middle class males are privileged rather than other races, class and genders. Basically meaning white guys who aren’t poor have more movies made about them. CHNFS Applied to movies: Les Ordres: - 1. goes against being narrative based - 2. it is linear narrative - 3. The villain is actually the "good guys" (police) - 5. collective action as a means of change > individual action Maurice Richard: - 1. presents reality > fantasy - 2. linear narrative: happy ending - 3. individual hero (Maurice) - 5. individual action (Taking FLAK for everyone - 6. shows hegemonic values being changed - 7. shows dominance of white male (English) class Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly  Global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled.  It consists of 30 articles which have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions and laws. Violated Rights in Les Ordres  1 & 2 – humans born free and equal with no discrimination (race, sex, political (French reality))  5 – No torture, inhuman, degrading treatment (mind games of execution to Richard, Claudette strip search, uneatable food)  6 – Right to recognition as a person before law (treated like animals in night strip searches)  10 – Full equality to fair public hearing (held without charges or hearings)  11(2) – innocent until proven guilty  12 – No interference and attacks with privacy, family, home (arrested in front of children, Claudette’s home trashed) Why it was not considered political enough by some? I'm not really sure about this one. In the reading about it in the course pack, the author (Christopher E. Gittings; Reading #7) writes about the role of class within the characters. He never outright calls it non- political enough, but there's no one else we really discussed about criticizing the movie. Significant character things for Les Ordres:  Clermont drives a taxi (which is one of the methods the FLQ kidnapped people). He breaks down and cries in his prison cell, and although the camera watches him, it then moves away and gives him his privacy (unlike the government and prison at the time). His father dies, and when he finally is able to visit the body, the film is still in colour (which is reserved for scenes in the prison). It's implied that although he's on the outside, because of the security watching him, he is still not free. When he finally gets released from the prison, one of the prison workers mispronounces his name, and he angrily corrects him. This signifies his regained identity.  Richard is tortured. He is threatened by the guards and told that he'll be shot. They just screw with him and cause him mental anguish. Then, he is put in an isolation chamber.  When Marie is released, she gets upset because she's the only woman of the group that she's with that is released. Emphasizes collective action and affiliation. Three Films made regarding October Crisis:  Les Ordres (Orderers) – Made in 1974 about the incarceration of innocent civilians during the 1970 October Crisis. The film tells the story of five of those incarcerated civilians. It is a reflexive documentary employing actors to recreate the experiences of fifty Québécois interned without charge under the War Measurement Act. o Michel Brault – He is a film producer. The leading figure of Direct Cinema and cinéma vérité which were characteristic of the French half of the National Film Board of Canada in the 1960s. Brault was a pioneer of the hand-held camera aesthetic. He Directed Les Ordres  Octobre – Made in 1994, tells a fictionalized version of the October Crisis from the point of view of the the FLQ terrorists (Chénier Cell) who kidnapped and murdered Quebec minister and Deputy Premier Pierre Laporte. The Quebec movie is directed by filmmaker and noted separatist Pierre Falardeau (Former Member of the Cell). It has elements of documentary film making  Action: The October Crisis of 1970 – Traces the events and political and social reactions and circumstances surrounding the crisis. Compiled from news and other films, it shows independence movements past and present, and their leaders; it reflects the mingled relief, dismay, defiance, when the Canadian army came to Montréal; and it shows how political leaders viewed the intervention. It is an expository documentary on the October Crisis. It was directed by Robin Spry Les Ordres Characters: Clermont Boudreau (husband;/father, work/union steward, taxi driver) Marie Boudreau (housewife/mother) Claudette Dusseault (social worker) Richard Lavoie (unemployed househusband/father) Dr. Jean Marie Beauchemin (physician) Richard and Clermont's children are the ones that lose their rights. Richard's sons are left without a parent, and Clermont's children also have their parents taken and, while at school, they are taught how to march, showing school's ISA influence October Crisis - A series of events triggered by two terrorist kidnappings of government officials by members of the Front de liberation du Québec during October 1970 in the province of Quebec.  The War Measures Act - a Canadian statute that allowed the government to assume sweeping emergency powers  Invoked by Pierre Trudeau on the request of Robert Bourossa and Jean Drapeau  The police would have more power in arrests and detention, so they could find and stop the FLQ members. There was a large amount of concern about the act being invoked as it was a direct threat to civil liberties  They arrested and detained, without bail, 497 individuals, all but 62 of whom were later released without charges. FLQ (Front de libération du Québec) (Quebec Liberation Front) - a nationalist and Marxist revolutionary group in Quebec that seeked Quebec’s independence  It was responsible for more than 200 bombings,  Kidnapped British Trade Commissioner James Cross and killed Quebec Labor Minister Pierre Laporte. James Cross - a British diplomat who was kidnapped by the FLQ terrorist group during the October Crisis of October 1970  On October 5, 1970, Cross was abducted at gunpoint from his British diplomatic residence on Red path Crescent and held as a hostage for two months as the FLQ made a series of demands to the Quebec government  Released after his capturers flee’d to Cuba Pierre Laporte - Minister of Labor of the province of Quebec. a member of the Quebec Liberal Party  He was kidnapped and murdered by members of the terrorist group FLQ during the October Crisis. On October 17, just seven days after he went missing, Laporte's body was found, he had been strangled  Held him hostage because his kidnappers wanted so-called political prisoners to be freed. Pierre Trudeau - 15th Prime Minister of Canada from April 20, 1968 to June 4, 1979  For October Crisis he invoked the War Measures Act, It was controversial and was opposed as excessive by figures like Tommy Douglas, it was met with only limited objections from the public  Trudeau's legacy in Quebec is mixed. Many credit his actions during the October Crisis as crucial in terminating the FLQ, and ensuring that the campaign for Quebec separatism took a democratic and peaceful route.  However, his imposition of the War Measures Act—which received majority support at the time—is remembered by some in Quebec and elsewhere as an attack on democracy.  Trudeau's vision was to create a Constitution for a "Just Society" with a strong federal government founded on shared values of individual rights, bilingualism, social democratic ideals, and, later on, multiculturalism. Multiculturalism Act - An Act passed in 1985 to Promote and Preserve Multiculturalism Robert Bourassa - a politician in Quebec, He served as Liberal Premier of Quebec in two different mandates  One of Québec Premiers Bourassa's first crises as premier was the October Crisis of 1970  Bourassa requested that Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau invoke the War Measures Act to resolve the situation.  The decision, although controversial, helped the police and government forces avert further abductions. After Laporte's kidnapping, it is said that Bourassa barricaded himself and his cabinet behind heavy layers of security  Robert Bourassa called for military assistance to guard government officials Tommy Douglas – a minister who became a prominent Canadian social democratic politician  Douglas and the NDP took a controversial but principled stand against the implementation of the War Measures Act during the October Crisis. He believed that Trudeau was being excessive in advising the use of the War Measures Act to suspend civil liberties and that the precedent set by this incident was dangerous. René Lévesque - a minister of the government of Quebec, the founder of the Parti Québécois political party, and 23rd Premier of Quebec  He was the first Quebecer political leader since confederation to attempt, through a referendum, to negotiate political independence for Quebec.  Parti Québécois (PQ) is a separatist provincial political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada.  Lévesque was frustrated by federal-provincial bickering over what he saw as increasing federal government intrusions into provincial jurisdictions.He saw a formal break with Canada as a way out of this. He broke with the provincial Liberals who remained committed to the policy of defending provincial autonomy inside Canada Quebec Nationalism/Separatism/Sovereignty – A contemporary nationalist movement in Quebec Quebec Federalist Ideology - Revolves around the concept of Quebec remaining within Canada The SQ (Quebec Security) - Quebec Provincial Police (QPP) and occasionally as "Quebec Police Force" (QPF)  To enforce provincial laws, some municipal bylaws, the criminal code, and many other laws throughout Quebec and to assist municipal police forces when needed. Members of the force can also act by law as forest conservation agents  The force is mainly present in small rural and suburban areas. The force also patrols provincial highways Maurice Duplessis - The premier of the Canadian province of Quebec from 1936 to 1939 and 1944 to 1959  The Union Nationale under Maurice Duplessis (1930s to 1950s) was nationalist without explicitly calling for independence The Duplessis years - 1944-1959 - Premier Maurice Duplessis and his Union National party emerged out of the ashes of the Conservative Party of Quebec in the 1930s.  Under his government, the Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches maintained the control they previously gained over social services such as schools and hospitals.  The authoritarian Duplessis used the provincial police and the "Padlock Law" to suppress unionism and gave the Montreal-based Anglo-Scot business elite as well as British and American capital a free rein in running the Quebec economy.  His government also continued to prevent circulation of books banned by the Catholic Church, combated communism and even shut down Protestant Churches like the Jehovah's Witnesses who evangelized in French Canada. The clergy used its influence to exhort Catholic voters to continue electing with the Union National and threaten to excommunicate sympathizers of liberal ideas.  For the time it lasted, the Duplessis regime resisted the North American and European trend of massive State investment in education, health, and social programs, turning away federal transfers of funds earmarked for these fields; he jealously guarded provincial jurisdictions. Common parlance speaks of these years as "la grande noirceur" {The Great Darkness], as in the first scenes of the film Maurice Richard. The Quiet Revolution 1960-1966 - In 1960, under a new Liberal Party government led by Premier Jean Lesage, the political power of the church was greatly reduced  Liberal governments of the 1960s followed a robust nationalist policy of "maître chez nous" (Master in our own house) that would see French-speaking Quebeckers use the state to elevate their economic status and assert their cultural identity.  The government took control of the education system, nationalized power production and distribution into Hydro-Québec (the provincial power utility), unionized the civil service, founded the Caisse de Depot to manage the massive new government pension program, and invested in companies that promoted French Canadians to management positions in industry.  In 1966
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