Pol 128 FINAL REVIEW.docx

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Ryerson University
Politics and Public Administration
POL 128
Laurinda Hartt- Fournier

K Siddiqui Pol128FINALREVIEW (ProfessorLaurindaHart-Fournier) Louis Althusser Theory of Interpellation:  This is the process by which agents (individuals) acquire their self-awareness as subjects, and the skills and attributes necessary for their social placement.  It is also whereby members of a society are both taught society’s norms and are controlled by those in power.  The process whereby those in power educate and constrain those not in power, the masses, from taking power RSA (repressive state apparatus): They exist to ISA (Ideological State Apparatus): To teach reinforce accepted norms and take action society norms and beliefs that are one sided. against those who don’t follow the norms. It is a Abbreviation: FERPTLC form of power that operates by means of Family ISA violence. Operates in public domain. Education ISA Abbreviation: GAACPP Religious ISA Governments Political ISA (political parties and system) Administration (relating to gov. and gov. Trade Unions ISA (workers and trades people not professionals) departments run by non-elected persons) Legal ISA Army (military) Communications ISA (mass media) Courts Culture (arts- such as literature music, dance, Police theatre, and sports) Prisons Stereotype: is a thought that may be adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of doing things, but that belief may or may not accurately reflect reality. Stereotype is a "conceptual model" created by abstracting the key features of current examples. Stereotype is invariably negative/ pejorative. It's rarely neutral, and almost never positive Archetype: A statement, or pattern of behaviour, a prototype upon which others are copied, patterned, or emulated. Archetype is normally a pre-existing model, from which future copies/examples are created. Archetype is normally a positive description (but sometimes it may be simply a neutral term) Text: Everything you see and hear in a film (characters, plot, music, dance, aspects of the story, images, visual scenes, carries with it denotative meanings) Subtext: Is the real purpose of the film, is what we read and interpret Denotative Meaning: obvious, literal meaning Connotative Meaning: deeper, less obvious implicit meaning Representational Discourse: how the film uses images, editing, sound, story and character to offer a discussion of key social issues and concerns and to deliver the films meaning beyond story and plot Other and Otherness: member of a dominated out group, whose identity is considered lacking and who may be subject to discrimination by the in group Ethnographiable: dependent on who is doing the looking. Categorized as savage and primitive . Historifiable: non raced white western and urbanized audience that constitute the spectators of others K Siddiqui Some Definitions of Things Political  “Politics broadly refers to any or all conflicts among human beings over the allocation of power, wealth or prestige, when interests are pursued by means other than the use of physical violence. According to a more optimistic view, politics is [sic] an essential means by which collective goals can be achieved through peaceful co-operation. Narrowly, the term describes activities associated with the government and state.  The state serves the purpose of managing conflicts and imposing solutions that are binding on all individuals and groups subject to its authority. To be viable, a state must enjoy unchallenged authority over a particular territory and population.”  Political: “exercising or seeking power in the governmental or public affairs of a state, municipality, etc.” Instructor’ note: as defined above, the seeker does not have to be a politician--could be a representative of corporate interests or a public relations specialist (or “spin doctor’), hence the term “power elites.”  A further definition of the term “political” from same source: “having a definite policy or system of government of or pertaining to citizens, for example, ‘political rights.’”  Politician: “a seeker or holder of public office, who is more concerned about winning favour or retaining power than about maintaining principles; a person who seeks to gain power or advancement in an organization in ways that are generally disapproved.” Classical Hollywood Narrative Film Style (CHNFS) that Influences Most Mainstream Filmmaking 1) Narrative (story-based) fiction feature-length films, (not a documentary approach of recording existing reality) and it is a storytelling approach that tends to present the "ideal" the "mythical" the desired fantasy rather than the actual realities of society (Hollywood was once called "the Dream Factory"). 2) Linear narrative--that is, the story moves clearly and rapidly forward through several crises to a climax and then a conclusion which includes a clear resolution (often referred to as a "happy ending" ) in which all problems issues are clearly and unambiguously resolved. Even when the resolution is NOT a happy one (that is, if hero dies, for example)! (The Hollywood Happy Ending is really a misnomer since many endings were anything but happy.) 3) Focus is on the individual hero (often male) versus an individual villain (male or female) and often involving an oversimplified dichotomization such as "good" versus "evil”; even systemic societal problems are shown being resolvable only through the heroic actions of the individual. Note: the hero/villain, good/evil dichotomization of the CHNFS has evolved into or been countered by the more complex approach of protagonist vs. antagonist in which the “hero” is now the central character and not necessarily heroic at all, but human and flawed, and the “villain” is now an antagonist that may not be entirely villainous or negative). 4) Product of Hollywood studio system and film industry and its familiar traditions and conventions which are used to attract the largest audience and offend the least, including the use of film genres (the western, the comedy, the melodrama, science fiction/fantasy, gangster film, the musical--each with their own conventions that the audience is familiar with and which they come in expecting to see) also the star system (e.g. two of the most popular early silent film stars were Charlie Chaplin and Mary Pickford) also used to lure in fans eager to see their favourites especially in familiar roles; K Siddiqui 5) As already noted (in 3), the focus of the CHNFS is usually on the power and responsibilities of the individual as a force for change rather than on collective action--Hollywood for various reasons mirrors the American fear of collective action being construed as communism or as a challenge to the democratic capitalist model that presents the (often unattainable) ideal or myth that the "American Dream" is attainable by all individuals who work hard, regardless of ethnicity, race, gender and class; fear of collective action being construed as communist/anti-American leanings was rampant during post WWII "Red Scare" period (especially 1947 into the early to mid 1950s during Senate hearings by H.U.A.C. (House Un-American Activities Committee) 6) Society's hegemonic values or "norms" are often reproduced and reinforced rather than challenged (again in part to appeal to the largest audience but also to reinforce existing belief systems rather than offering an ideological challenge that might supposedly offend some audience members and thus reduce revenues and invite controversy and possible government interference-- Examples of actions taken by Hollywood to prevent such interference: Hollywood setting in place their own self-censorship system known as the Production Code, 1934-1968 to avoid censorship by various levels of government; Hollywood studios eagerly participated directly with the government to create propaganda films during WWII and did not protect their creative artists, especially writers, during the HUAC investigations, from accusations of Communist tendencies). 7) In the CHNFS the perspective of the white male (patriarchal) middle class is privileged over the wider perspective of race, gender, class (working class) and ethnic diversity. This view is a result of the long-term and on-going white male dominance in the film industry. It's symptoms include the objectification of women, the focus on white male dominance and power, and the marginalization of other ethnic, racial, gender and class concerns. 8) The CHNFS endeavours to keep the constructed nature of film narrative storytelling INVISIBLE to the audience (using film techniques such as cinematography, editing and mise-en-scene) so that it perceives the story, its meaning and encoded ideologies as REAL, natural, unobstructed. IN STARK CONTRAST to this CHNFS trait, post modern filmmakers (especially since the 1960s) now openly expose their techniques in a self-reflexive reference to the constructed nature of film so that audiences are reminded that film, like ideologies, ARE constructs or reality, not reality itself. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 1948 (related to les Ordres)  A declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly  Global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled.  It consists of 30 articles which have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions and laws. The Constitution act (1982): (Elijah Harper –Reference)  PM Trudeau repatriated the constitution to allow for amendments to the BNA (British North America’s Act)  Quebec Premier Rene Levesque & Quebec national Assembly refused to ratify (to approve formally) the amendment  Act passed despite objections because no provincial veto ( Veto - is the power used by an officer of the state to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation) K Siddiqui The Meech Lake Accord (1987): (Elijah Harper –Reference)  PM Mulroney proposed a package of amendments to the constitution  New Quebec premier, Robert Bourassa: better climate for negotiation  Bourassa proposed 5 modifications to the constitution  Required consent of all provincial and federal legislatures within 3 years  It was intended to persuade the government of Quebec to endorse the 1982 constitutional amendment and increase support in Quebec for remaining within Canada Quebec’s 5 Demands (Elijah Harper –Reference)  Recognition of Quebec as a “distinct society”  Constitutional veto for all provinces  Increased provincial powers over immigration  Extension of right to opt out of federal programs in areas of provincial jurisdiction  Provincial input in appointment of senators and supreme court judges Opposition  1 July 1990: “drop dead date” for accord  3 June 1990: First Minister conference o Agreed to further negotiations after ratification  Many opposed the process as secretive o Decisions made by 11 first ministers instead of in consultation with 26 million Canadians UNDRIP (united Nations declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples) 2007:  Codifies "Indigenous historical grievances, contemporary challenges and socio-economic, political and cultural aspirations" is a "culmination of generations-long efforts by Indigenous organizations to get international attention, to secure recognition for their aspirations, and to generate support for their political agendas.  Canada voted against adoption of the UNDRIP, as did New Zealand, Australia (adopted in 2010) and the United States. Of the remaining countries, 143 voted in favour of its adoption, and 11 abstained. Thirty five States were absent. Many States, including those who voted in favour of the Declaration, delivered statements to explain their votes, emphasizing that the Declaration is non-binding and that its provisions are subject to varying interpretations.  Why didn’t Canada vote against? In a statement to explain its vote at the UN General Assembly, Canada expressed its disappointment in voting against a document that it had been an active participant in developing for over 20 years. During that time Canada helped galvanize international efforts towards the development of a declaration that would promote and protect the rights and freedoms of every Indigenous person, as well as to recognize their collective rights around the world. Indian residential system (Elijah Harper –Reference)  Policy that began in the late 1800, it was run by the churches trying to educate the children of what it is to be white. K Siddiqui  It was the government under sir john a mc Donald that attached itself to the system. I.R.S (one of the darkest part of Canadian history) this is not a docudrama. The first peoples of Canada were the aboriginal people of Canada 1. First nations (Indians –name given by colonizers because they thought they were in India) 2. Inuit (Eskimos) 3. Metis  Then came the French  Then came the English Elijah (Biopic & Narrative) Elijah Harper Significance timeline  1949 born-2013 died  Raised by grandparents  Went to University of Manitoba in 1971  Did not get his degree but became the chief of his band at age 29  Voted to Manitoba legislature as NDP MLA for Red Sucker Lake o First treaty Indian elected o Served for 11 years  1986: served in cabinet as minister without portfolio for native affairs  1987: became Manitoba’s minister of northern affairs  1990 June 3: 12 days before ratification deadline: Harper started filibuster that prevented assemble from ratifying  1990 June 22: Held up an eagle feather to say “no”  Visited Queen in London to make sure aboriginals received fair treatment  1992: Refused invitation to attend signing ceremony with the queen in Ottawa rd  1993: elected liberal MP for Churchill (3 largest riding in Canada) MOVIE NOTES  Connotative and denotative meaning (a lot of them) For example: images  The eagle feather – he held it up in the legislature, people say its symbol of power in their culture, and it has a simple meaning than that… who else has an eagle feather? So when he holds it up its not only power, It stands for other ness and the different culture.  Point of order (what’s the connotative) denotatively it’s a rule, you have to present a document or some sort of discussion. The connotative is shown through … he learns in school the general white society and then he learns the specific rule of point of order in his work. He uses it against them. Therefore it’s out of order. It goes back to learning the white man’s ways and uses it against the white man. He’s challenged by the premier of Manitoba  Colonizer -taking the tool of the colonizer and using it against the colonizer in order to regain recognition of the culture  “The Very Old Indian Woman“ K Siddiqui  Nelson Mandela: (in prison, released, first black president of that nation) South Africans mentioned  parti; colonizing groups marginalized Africans forced to live in poorest parts  Nelson Mandela is a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary and politician who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999  Apartheid was a system of racial segregation enforced through legislation by the National Party governments, who were the ruling party from 1948 to 1994, of South Africa  TRC (truth and reconciliation commission)- is a commission tasked with discovering and revealing past wrongdoing by a government (or, depending on the circumstances, non-state actors also), in the hope of resolving conflict left over from the past. They are, under various names, occasionally set up by states emerging from periods of internal unrest, civil war, or dictatorship. South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, established by President Nelson Mandela)  Elijah writing a history through the film, white men are being othered being humorous- Historiofiable view of First Nations, representing all the aboriginal cultures in Canada including first nations, Inuit, and metis- their writing the history of these people  “Winnipeg, where white people live” –Elijah returning the gaze and takes back by othering the whites Stephen Harpers Apology The treatment of children in Indian Residential Schools is a sad chapter in our history. For more than a century, Indian Residential Schools separated over 150,000 Aboriginal children from their families and communities. In the 1870's, the federal government, partly in order to meet its obligation to educate Aboriginal children, began to play a role in the development and administration of these schools. Two primary objectives of the Residential Schools system were to remove and isolate children from the influence of their homes, families
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