Classical Liberalism – government should not get involved in economics, rule of law, and freedom of individuals, speech,
religion, and free markets
Capitalism – ownership of means is made by private individuals – free competitive market
- wealth created, lots of wealth but unevenly distributed among people – rich get richer
Unions fought for rights politically, i.e. # of hours
Welfare liberal philosophers rethought liberalism (liberty and equality)– wanted to redefine what freedom was –Generally
supported constitutionalism, liberal democracy, free and fair elections, human rights, capitalism and free exercise of religion.
“You are free if no one can tell you what to do.”
T.H. Green – freedom should be seen as the capacity to do something worth doing. “A poor man is not free”
Welfare state (taxes) – use rich people money for 95% of the poor i.e. education, work, environment
Socialism – the French revolution (Equality) – everyone would share benefits of industrialization. It produces exactly what’s
needed for exactly who needs it. Everyone has say in economy
- Democratic socialism – the economy and society should be run democratically – meet public needs not make profit for the
- Revolutionary socialism
- Communist revolution - few people have say in how economy works, fewer people have say in how government works. -
destroyed capitalism in Russia
Marxism – class struggle is a central element in the analysis of social change in society – basis of communism, "From each
according to his ability, to each according to his need." Believed working class would take over making it class-less, but that
didn’t happen. So guides would be implemented which is communism.
Today we have
Neo –Liberalism – supports privete industries, economic liberalization. deregulation, lower taxes
Neo – Conservatism (neo liberalism + communism) – cuts social programs, more powerful money
- Using modern economics and military power to bring liberalism, democracy and human rights to other countries
1. Holistic – property of system cannot be determined by its components
2. Prescriptive – attempting to impose rules of correct usage on the users of technology
Technology has enslaved us because of monitoring – work taken home because of tech = free work
Americans put bases in Europe/Asia in fear of communism spread
Containment Domino theory – if one country falls into communism, all follow
1945 – 1 atomic bomb America and Russia both had nuclear weapons
Soviets will never attack as long as you have a fair counter attack - Mutually assured destruction (MAD)
Canada vs. Russia in hockey symbolised democratic vs. capitalism
American pianist winning symbolised good culture
Russia winning the space race symbolized superior capitalism
Russia and America thought they had spies in each other’s countries
McCarthyism – making accusations of disloyalty or treason without proper regard for evidence.
put communists on trial (lost a lot of jobs)
Cuban Missile Crisis – triggered by tech imbalances
- Stop building military bases in Cuba, in return, we will close down base in Turkey
- Ended in 1990, no shots fired.
As ideology, many Canadians uphold the ideal of diversity in its own right as well as means to an end.
As policy, Canada is officially multicultural.
As process, politicians and minorities have taken advantage of multiculturalism as a calued resource for promoting personal or
group interests. Media representation of minorities
1. Invisible and irrelevant
a. Aboriginals and racial minorities have long been ignored by the mass media except when convenient to do
otherwise (conflict or crisis). (underrepresentation)
b. Minorities are overlooked by media when it counts and spotlighted when it doesn’t
c. Always depicted in negative manner, comedy, crime, drugs, crooks, victims.
d. Absence of racial minorities in creative positions (directors, producers, editors,)
e. Minorities are restricted in ways that deny their existence, devalue their contribution to society, and
trivialize their aspirations to participate as fully fledged members
2. In terms of race-role stereotyping
a. Presented in manner consistent with prevailing prejudices and attitudes. For example, aboriginals as
savages or drunks. Other minorities as dropouts, pimps, drug pushers, mathematical or scientific geniuses.
Blacks are usually entertainers, sports figures, villains, victims.
b. Through stereotypes, minorities were put down, put in place, or put up as props and adornments for
c. Progress towards eliminating mass media stereotyping is slow. Race-role images continue to be reinforced,
perpetuated, and even legitimized through selective media coverage.
d. Race tagging – identifying person by racial labels when irrelevant to the story
3. As a social problem
a. Described of having problems in need of solutions that use amount of political attention. Media likely to
define minorities as villains who create problems.
b. Immigration issues: entrance rules have to be tougher, quotas have to be set, amnesty policies have to be
questioned, and refugee totals have to be cut.
c. Canada has a “immigration problem” where immigrants pose threats not to just system but individuals as
d. Immigrants are perceived to steal jobs from Canadians, engage in illegal activities such as drugs or
smuggling, and offer nothing to Canada in return.
e. Alternating between denying or exaggerating their presence, the media create a strong psychological
barrier between minorities and the rest of Canadian society.
4. As tokens for entertainment or decoration
a. Example of Mohawk Casino Wars – aboriginals were portrayed as savages with guns. There was little
attempt to put the conflict into some kind of historical content.
Why the problem is there
1. Media Logic
a. Media are invlolved in the construction of reality through the processes of socialization, legitimation, and
b. In seeking to secure as large an audience as possible for revenue purposes, mass media constitutes business
ventures whose bottom line is profit and accountability to shareholders.
2. The Logic of newscasting
a. Decisions about “newsworthy” must take into account media perceptions about who or what is important
to the audience. A pervasive bias in news making reflects the interaction between private ownership and
b. Increasingly intense competition for consumer dollar encourages the repackaging of news as entertainment
with informative slant.
3. Tv Logic
a. TV programming conforms to a proven formula in effect since inception. “safe, similar and familiar” for fear
of disturbing the consuming public. Characters are typecast within a restricted span of roles consistant with
b. Perpetuation of boxed-in reality.
4. Advertising Logic
a. Most relevant for one-sidedness. Attract largest audience to maximize profit.
b. 6 parts to advertising: Attract user attention, arouse interest, target an audience, manipulate images,
neutralize reservations, and create conviction.
c. Example, beauty is portrayed as whiteness
Systematic discrimination – “normal” rules are set to filter out minorities
Paradox in limiting the media on what’s not allowed yet allowing freedom of speech – Forced equity is not real freedom
No win situations when portraying minorities. Some say its good, some say its bad. Disney Movie Stereotypes
Problematic for children because they enjoy repetition and watch films over and over again.
Women portrayed as helpless mindless objects. Discourage positive self-esteem, education, and non-
traditional careers and from being self sufficient. Encourage submissiveness, and more insecure about
their abilities thus remaining invisible.
Men are more valued then women and are more visible, careers tend to be prestigious.
- Male central characters
o Males treat females as inferior. Females respond by becoming invisible
- Marriage as central thematic goal, especially for females
- Portrayal of females as submissive compared with males
- Central figuration of self-sacrifice, especially of female characters
- Tendency for female disobedience to be disastrous in its