Intermittent reinforcement: An operant conditioning principle in which only some of the responses are followed by enforcement.
(e.g you put $1 in to buy pop but the machine is broken and no pop comes out)
Intermittent reinforcement effect: The fact that operant behaviors are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules
resist extinction better than those maintained under continuous reinforcement.
Latent learning: A condition in which something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the
Cognitive map: mental representation of the physical features of the environment.
Observational learning: A condition in which learning takes place by watching the action of others.
- Mirror neurons in the brain fire when an individual either performs an action or watches someone else perform that action.
Implicit learning: learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information
Chapter 5: Memory
Memory: The ability to store and retrieve information over time.
Encoding: The process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory.
Storage: the process of maintaining information in memory over time.
Retrieval: The process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored.
Elaborative encoding: The process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory.
Visual imagery encoding: The process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures.
Organizational encoding: the act of categorizing information by noticing the relationships among a series of items.
Memory storage: the process of maintaining information in memory over time.
Sensory memory store: the pace in which sensory information is kept for a few seconds or less.
Iconic memory: a fast-decaying store of visual information.
Echoic memory: a fast-decaying store of auditory information.
Short-term memory store: a place where nonsensory information is kept for more than a few seconds but less than a minute.
Rehearsal: The process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it.
Chunking: combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in long term memory.
Working memory: Active maintenance of information in short-term storage.
Long-term memory store: A place in which information can be kept for hours, days, weeks, or years.
Anterograde amnesia: The inability to transfer new information from the short-term store to the long-term store.
Retrograde amnesia: The inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury
or an operation.
Long-term potentiation (LTP): enhanced neural processing that results from strengthening of synaptic connections.
Retrieval cue: external information that is associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind.
Encoding specificity principle: The idea that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the
specific way in which information was initially encoded.
State-dependent retrieval: The tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during
encoding and retrieval.
Transfer-appropriate processing: The idea that memory is likely to transfer from more than one situation to another when we
process information in a way that is appropriate to the retrieval cues that will be available later on.
- trying to recall a melody involves the right frontal lobe, whereas successfully recalling the melody involves the hippocampus and
Explicit memory: The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences.
Implicit memory: The influence of past experiences on later behavior and performance, even though people are not trying to
recollect them and they are not aware that they are remembering them.
Procedural memory: The gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice or “knowing” how to do things.
Priming: An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or an object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus.
Semantic memory: A network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world.
Episodic memory: The collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place.
Seven sins or memory:
1. Transience: forgetting what occurs with the passage of time.
Retroactive interference: situations in which later learning impairs memory for information acquired earlier.