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Terms for Chapters 5,6,7,8,11,12,15

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 105
Professor
Genevieve Quintin

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Psychology
Chapter 6: Learning
Learning: some experiences that result in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner.
Habituation: A general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in reduction in responding.
Classical Conditioning: When a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired
with a stimulus that naturally evokes the response. (e.g Ivan Pavlov dog & bell stimulus)
Unconditioned Stimulus (US): Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring
reaction in an organism. (e.g food[stimuli] makes a dog salivate)
Unconditioned Response (UR): A reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an
unconditioned stimulus. (e.g: the salivation [response] to the food)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS): A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable
response in an organism. (e.g bell)
Conditioned Response (CR): A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is
produced by a conditioned stimulus.
Acquisition: The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented
together.
Extinction: The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer present. (E.g – no more
food when bell is rung)
Spontaneous recovery: The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period.
Generalization: A process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during
the acquisition.
Discrimination: The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli.
John B.
Waston: He tested Pavlovs theory with Rosalie Rayner. He showed 9 month old little Albert a bunch of different stimulus (white
rat, dog, rabbit, different masks). He then struck a large steel bar with a hammer which made little Albert cry. He then struck the
steel bar with a hammer every time the child was presented with the white rat. Little Albert soon cried and trembled at the site of
the white rat. The sight of a white rabbit, a seal-fur coat and a Santa claus mask all produced the same kind of fear reactions in the
child. 1)He wanted to prove that relatively complex reactions could be conditioned using Pavlovian techniques. 2)Watson proposed
that fear could be learned just like any other behavior. 3)He wanted to confirm that conditioning could be applied to humans as
well as to other animals.
Biological preparedness: A propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others.
Operant conditioning: A type of learning in which the consequences of an organisms behavior determine whether it will be
repeated in the future. (behaviors are active.)
Law of Effect: Behaviors that are followed by a “satisfying state of affairs tend to be repeated and those that produce an
unpleasant state of affairs are less likely to be repeated.
Reinforcer: Any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it.
Punisher: any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it.
Overjustification effect: circumstances when external rewards can undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior.
In classical
conditioning responses are usually hardwired- behaviors that animals already display such as salivation for fear. In operant
conditioning you can produce new behaviors.
Shaping: Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive approximations to a final desired behavior.
Successive approximation: A behavior that gets incrementally closer to the overall desired behavior.
Fixed interval schedule (FI): An operant conditioning principle in which reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods,
provided that the appropriate response is made. (e.g barely do any work but when exam time comes study like crazy)
Variable interval schedule (VI): An operant conditioning principle in which behavior is reinforced based on an average time that
has expired since the last reinforcement. (e.g radios have hourly prizes)
Fixed ratio schedule (FR): An operant conditioning principle in which reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of
responses have been made. (e.g buy 5 car washes get one free)
Variable ratio schedule (VR): An operant conditioning principle in which the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular
average number of responses. (e.g casino slots)
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Intermittent reinforcement: An operant conditioning principle in which only some of the responses are followed by enforcement.
(e.g you put $1 in to buy pop but the machine is broken and no pop comes out)
Intermittent reinforcement effect: The fact that operant behaviors are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules
resist extinction better than those maintained under continuous reinforcement.
Latent learning: A condition in which something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the
future.
Cognitive map: mental representation of the physical features of the environment.
Observational learning: A condition in which learning takes place by watching the action of others.
- Mirror neurons in the brain fire when an individual either performs an action or watches someone else perform that action.
Implicit learning: learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information
acquisition.
Chapter 5: Memory
Memory: The ability to store and retrieve information over time.
Encoding: The process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory.
Storage: the process of maintaining information in memory over time.
Retrieval: The process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored.
Elaborative encoding: The process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory.
Visual imagery encoding: The process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures.
Organizational encoding: the act of categorizing information by noticing the relationships among a series of items.
Memory storage: the process of maintaining information in memory over time.
Sensory memory store: the pace in which sensory information is kept for a few seconds or less.
Iconic memory: a fast-decaying store of visual information.
Echoic memory: a fast-decaying store of auditory information.
Short-term memory store: a place where nonsensory information is kept for more than a few seconds but less than a minute.
Rehearsal: The process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it.
Chunking: combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in long term memory.
Working memory: Active maintenance of information in short-term storage.
Long-term memory store: A place in which information can be kept for hours, days, weeks, or years.
Anterograde amnesia: The inability to transfer new information from the short-term store to the long-term store.
Retrograde amnesia: The inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury
or an operation.
Long-term potentiation (LTP): enhanced neural processing that results from strengthening of synaptic connections.
Retrieval cue: external information that is associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind.
Encoding specificity principle: The idea that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the
specific way in which information was initially encoded.
State-dependent retrieval: The tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during
encoding and retrieval.
Transfer-appropriate processing: The idea that memory is likely to transfer from more than one situation to another when we
process information in a way that is appropriate to the retrieval cues that will be available later on.
- trying to recall a melody involves the right frontal lobe, whereas successfully recalling the melody involves the hippocampus and
temporal lobe.
Explicit memory: The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences.
Implicit memory: The influence of past experiences on later behavior and performance, even though people are not trying to
recollect them and they are not aware that they are remembering them.
Procedural memory: The gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice orknowing how to do things.
Priming: An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or an object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus.
Semantic memory: A network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world.
Episodic memory: The collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place.
Seven sins or memory:
1. Transience: forgetting what occurs with the passage of time.
Retroactive interference: situations in which later learning impairs memory for information acquired earlier.
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Proactive interference: situations in which earlier learning impairs memory for information acquired later.
2. Absentmindness: a lapse in attention that results in memory failure.
Prospective memory: remembering to do things in the future.
3.Blocking: a failure to retrieve information that is available in your memory even though you are trying to produce it. (on the tip of
your tongue).
4. Memory misattribution: assigning a recollection of an idea to the wrong source.
Source memory: recall of when, where and how information was acquired.
5. Suggestibility: the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollection.
6.Bias: distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences.
7.Persistance: the intrusive recollection of event that we wish we could forget.
Flashbulb memories: Detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events.
Chapter 7: Language, Thought, and intelligence.
Language: A system for communicating with others using signals that convey meaning and are combined according to the rules of
grammar.
Phoneme: The smallest unit of sound that Is recognized as speech rather than as a random noise.
Morphemes: The smallest meaningful units of language.
Grammar: A set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages.
- rules of morphology: indicates how morphemes can be combined to form a word (e.g eat+ing) and rule of syntax: indicates how
words can be combined to form phrases and sentences.
Deep structure: The meaning of a sentence.
Surface structure: How a sentence is worded.
Fast mapping: the fact that children can map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure.
Nativist theory: The view that language development is best explained as an innate biological capacity.
Language acquisition device (LAD): A collection of processes that facilitate language learning.
Genetic dysphasia: A syndrome characterized by the inability to learn the grammatical structure of language despite having
otherwise normal intelligence.
Aphasia: difficulty in producing or comprehending language.
Concept: a mental representations that groups or categorizes shared features of related objects, events or other stimuli.
Category-specific deficit: a neurological syndrome that is characterized by the inability to recognize objects that belong to a
particular category while leaving the ability to recognize objects outside the category to be undisturbed.
Family resemblance theory: members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may
not be possessed by every member.
Prototype: thebest ormost typical member of a category.
Exemplar theory: a theory of categorization that argues that we can make category judgments by comparing a new instance with
stored memories for other instances of the category.
Rational choice theory: the classical view that we make decisions determining how likely something is to happen, judging the
value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two.
Conjunction fallacy: When people think that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event.
Framing effects: when people give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem was phrased.
Sunk-cost fallacy: A framing effect in which people make decisions situations based on what they have previously invested in the
situation.
Prospect theory: proposes that people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating
potential gains.
Intelligence: A hypothetical mental ability that enables people to direct their thinking, adapt to their circumstances and learn from
their experiences.
Ratio IQ: A statistic obtained by dividing a person’s mental age by the person’s physical age and then multiplying the quotient by
100.
Deviation IQ: a statistic obtained by dividing a person’s test score by the average test score of people in the same age group and
then multiplying the quotient by 100.
Factor analysis: a statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small number of underlying
factors.
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Description
Psychology Chapter 6: Learning Learning: some experiences that result in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner. Habituation: A general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in reduction in responding. Classical Conditioning: When a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes the response. (e.g Ivan Pavlov dog & bell stimulus) Unconditioned Stimulus (US): Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism. (e.g food[stimuli] makes a dog salivate) Unconditioned Response (UR): A reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an unconditioned stimulus. (e.g: the salivation [response] to the food) Conditioned Stimulus (CS): A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism. (e.g bell) Conditioned Response (CR): A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus. Acquisition: The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together. Extinction: The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer present. (E.g no more food when bell is rung) Spontaneous recovery: The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period. Generalization: A process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during the acquisition. Discrimination: The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli. John B. Waston: He tested Pavlovs theory with Rosalie Rayner. He showed 9 month old little Albert a bunch of different stimulus (white rat, dog, rabbit, different masks). He then struck a large steel bar with a hammer which made little Albert cry. He then struck the steel bar with a hammer every time the child was presented with the white rat. Little Albert soon cried and trembled at the site of the white rat. The sight of a white rabbit, a seal-fur coat and a Santa claus mask all produced the same kind of fear reactions in the child. 1)He wanted to prove that relatively complex reactions could be conditioned using Pavlovian techniques. 2)Watson proposed that fear could be learned just like any other behavior. 3)He wanted to confirm that conditioning could be applied to humans as well as to other animals. Biological preparedness: A propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others. Operant conditioning: A type of learning in which the consequences of an organisms behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future. (behaviors are active.) Law of Effect: Behaviors that are followed by a satisfying state of affairs tend to be repeated and those that produce an unpleasant state of affairs are less likely to be repeated. Reinforcer: Any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it. Punisher: any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it. Overjustification effect: circumstances when external rewards can undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior. In classical conditioning responses are usually hardwired- behaviors that animals already display such as salivation for fear. In operant conditioning you can produce new behaviors. Shaping: Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive approximations to a final desired behavior. Successive approximation: A behavior that gets incrementally closer to the overall desired behavior. Fixed interval schedule (FI): An operant conditioning principle in which reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made. (e.g barely do any work but when exam time comes study like crazy) Variable interval schedule (VI): An operant conditioning principle in which behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement. (e.g radios have hourly prizes) Fixed ratio schedule (FR): An operant conditioning principle in which reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made. (e.g buy 5 car washes get one free) Variable ratio schedule (VR): An operant conditioning principle in which the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses. (e.g casino slots) www.notesolution.com
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