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Psychology Chapter 15.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 124
Professor
Thomas Barbiero

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Psychology
Chapter 15: Treatment of Psychological Disorders
The Elements of the Treatment Process:
Treatments: How Many Are There?
1. Insight Therapies (“talk therapy”): clients engage in complex verbal interactions with their
therapists. This therapy can be conducted with one person, or in a group.
Ex: family therapy, marriage therapy
2. Behaviour Therapies: behaviour therapists make direct efforts to alter problematic
responses (ex: phobias) and maladaptive habits (ex: drug use). Most of their procedures
involve classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning.
3. Biomedical Therapies: involves interventions into a person’s biological functioning; this
includes drug therapy and electroconvulsive (shock) therapy. These treatments are only
provided by physicians with a medical degree usually psychiatrists.
Therapists: Who Provides Professional Treatment?
1. Psychologists:
- Clinical psychologists: emphasize the treatment of full-fledged disorders
- Counselling psychologists: focus on the treatment of everyday adjustment problems
- Both types of psychologists must earn a doctors degree (Ph.D.)
- Use either insight or behavioural approaches
2. Psychiatrists: physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological
disorders
- Devote more time to severe disorders (schizophrenia, mood disorders)
- They have an M.D. degree
3. Other Mental Health Professionals:
- Clinical social workers
- Psychiatric nurses
- Counsellors
Insight Therapies: involve verbal interactions intended to enhance clients’ self-knowledge and
thus promote healthful changes in personality and behaviour.
Psychoanalysis: emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defences
through techniques such as free association and transference.
Probing the Unconscious:
- free association: clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as
they occur, with as little censorship as possible say whatever comes to mind despite
how silly or embarrassing it is
- analyst studies free associations for clues about what is going on in the client’s
unconscious
- dream analysis: therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the client’s dreams
Freud believed dreams were the “royal road to the unconscious”
He believed dreams were the most direct means of access to patients’ innermost
conflicts, wishes, and impulses
Clients are encouraged and trained to remember dreams, which they describe in therapy
therapist then analyzes the symbolism in the dreams to interpret t heir meaning and
treat the patient
Interpretation:
- Refers to the therapist’s attempts to explain the inner significance of the client’s
thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviours
Resistance:
- Refers to largely unconscious defensive manoeuvres intended to hinder the progress of
therapy
- Clients might try to resist the helping process because they don’t want to face up to the
painful, disturbing conflicts they have buried deep inside their unconscious
- Even though they have sought help, they are still reluctant and afraid to confront their
problems
- Reluctance can take many forms: clients are late for their sessions, may express hostility
toward their therapist, may pretend to engage in free association
Transference:
- Occurs when clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic
critical relationships in their lives
Ex: client might start relating to the therapist as if the therapist is an overprotective
mother, a rejecting brother, a passive spouse, etc
- The client is transferring conflicting feelings about important people onto the therapist
Modern Psychodynamic Therapies:
- Although still available, classical psychoanalysis as done by Freud is not really practiced
anymore
- Today, psychoanalysis is adapted to different cultures, changing times, and new kinds of
patients as compared to the ones Freud had in Vienna MANY years ago
- These new approaches and descendants of psychoanalysis are collectively known as
psychodynamic approaches to therapy
Client-Centred Therapy: an insight therapy that emphasize providing a supportive emotional
climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy.
- It is the client who knows what hurts, what directions to go, what problems are crucial,
and what experiences have been deeply buried
- So even though it sounds silly that a troubled, untrained client is put in charge of the
pace and direction of the therapy, it makes sense
- Provide a good emotionally supportive environment because the troubled patient is the
one who knows most about their own problems thus, it makes sense that they are the
ones who determine the pace and direction of their own treatment
Therapeutic Climate:
- The process of therapy is not as important as the emotional climate in which the therapy
takes place
- In order to create an atmosphere of emotional support, client-centred therapists must
provide three conditions: genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathy
- Rogers firmly believed that a supportive emotional climate is the critical force promoting
healthy changes in therapy
Therapeutic Process:
- The client and therapist work together as equals
- The therapist provides feedback to help clients sort out their feelings
The therapists main job is clarification this helps clients become more aware of their
true feelings
Therapists try to help clients better understand their interpersonal relationships and
become more comfortable with their genuine selves
Therapies Inspired by Positive Technology
- Growth of positive psychology movement has inspired new approaches to insight
therapy
- Advocates of positive psychology maintain that the field has historically focused far too
heavily on pathology weakness, and suffering rather than health and resilience
- New therapies include well-being therapy which seeks to enhance clients’ self-
acceptance, purpose in life, autonomy, and personal growth used to treat mood
disorders and anxiety
- Positive psychotherapy used in the treatment of depression gets clients to recognize
their strengths, appreciate their blessings, savour positive experiences, forgive those
who have wrong them, and find meaning in their lives
Group Therapy
- Group therapy is the simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group
- Group therapy can be conducted in a variety of ways

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Description
Psychology Chapter 15: Treatment of Psychological Disorders The Elements of the Treatment Process: Treatments: How Many Are There? 1. Insight Therapies (talk therapy): clients engage in complex verbal interactions with their therapists. This therapy can be conducted with one person, or in a group. Ex: family therapy, marriage therapy 2. Behaviour Therapies: behaviour therapists make direct efforts to alter problematic responses (ex: phobias) and maladaptive habits (ex: drug use). Most of their procedures involve classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. 3. Biomedical Therapies: involves interventions into a persons biological functioning; this includes drug therapy and electroconvulsive (shock) therapy. These treatments are only provided by physicians with a medical degree usually psychiatrists. Therapists: Who Provides Professional Treatment? 1. Psychologists: - Clinical psychologists: emphasize the treatment of full-fledged disorders - Counselling psychologists: focus on the treatment of everyday adjustment problems - Both types of psychologists must earn a doctors degree (Ph.D.) - Use either insight or behavioural approaches 2. Psychiatrists: physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders - Devote more time to severe disorders (schizophrenia, mood disorders) - They have an M.D. degree 3. Other Mental Health Professionals: - Clinical social workers - Psychiatric nurses - Counsellors Insight Therapies: involve verbal interactions intended to enhance clients self-knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behaviour. Psychoanalysis: emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defences through techniques such as free association and transference. Probing the Unconscious: - free association: clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible say whatever comes to mind despite how silly or embarrassing it is - analyst studies free associations for clues about what is going on in the clients unconscious - dream analysis: therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the clients dreams Freud believed dreams were the royal road to the unconscious He believed dreams were the most direct means of access to patients innermost conflicts, wishes, and impulses Clients are encouraged and trained to remember dreams, which they describe in therapy therapist then analyzes the symbolism in the dreams to interpret t heir meaning and treat the patient Interpretation: - Refers to the therapists attempts to explain the inner significance of the clients thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviours Resistance: - Refers to largely unconscious defensive manoeuvres intended to hinder the progress of therapy - Clients might try to resist the helping process because they dont want to face up to the painful, disturbing conflicts they have buried deep inside their unconscious - Even though they have sought help, they are still reluctant and afraid to confront their problems - Reluctance can take many forms: clients are late for their sessions, may express hostility toward their therapist, may pretend to engage in free association Transference: - Occurs when clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives Ex: client might start relating to the therapist as if the therapist is an overprotective mother, a rejecting brother, a passive spouse, etc - The client is transferring conflicting feelings about important people onto the therapist Modern Psychodynamic Therapies: - Although still available, classical psychoanalysis as done by Freud is not really practiced anymore - Today, psychoanalysis is adapted to different cultures, changing times, and new kinds of patients as compared to the ones Freud had in Vienna MANY years ago - These new approaches and descendants of psychoanalysis are collectively known as psychodynamic approaches to therapyClient-Centred Therapy: an insight therapy that emphasize providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy. - It is the client who knows what hurts, what directions to go, what problems are crucial, and what experiences have been deeply buried - So even though it sounds silly that a troubled, untrained client is put in charge of the pace and direction of the therapy, it makes sense - Provide a good emotionally supportive environment because the troubled patient is the one who knows most about their own problems thus, it makes sense that they are the ones who determine the pace and direction of their own treatment Therapeutic Climate: - The process of therapy is not as important as the emotional climate in which the therapy takes place - In order to create an atmosphere of emotional support, client-centred therapists must provide three conditions: genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathy - Rogers firmly believed that a supportive emotional climate is the critical force promoting healthy changes in therapy Therapeutic Process: - The client and therapist work together as equals
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