Innate purity inherently good and actively involved in development. John locke (1632-1704: tabula rasa (blank slate) entirely and passively shaped by experience. Child development as a science - late 19th and early 20th centuries. Influential theories of development: sigmund freud (1856-1939, psychoanalytic theory - the influence of unconscious desires on development, the i(cid:373)porta(cid:374)(cid:272)e of earl(cid:455) (cid:455)ear"s e(cid:454)perie(cid:374)(cid:272)e a(cid:374)d e(cid:373)otio(cid:374) (cid:271)o(cid:374)d, three components of personality. Id it, irrational mind: gratify biological instincts immediately, ego i, rational mind, find realistic solutions, superego above me, moral, conscience mind. John watson (1878-1958: behaviouristic theory, excluded subjective phenomena emotions, thoughts, motives, emphasis on nurture child development is controlled by environmental factors, classical conditioning. Jean piaget (1896-1980: theory of cognitive development. Intelligence a basic life process: scheme / cognitive structure, cognitive developmental stages, discovery-based education. Nature and nurture: nurture biological endowment, genes, nurture environmental (physical and social) influences, today both contribute to change (middle ground) Development is a series of discrete stages: 2.