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Midterm

PSY 302 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Tabula Rasa, Philosophical Perspectives


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 302
Professor
Lixia Yang
Study Guide
Midterm

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PSY302 - MIDTERM 1
INTRODUCTION
WHY DO WE STUDY CHILDREN?
Raise children
o Gain knowledge and information that can help parents and teachers rearing and
educating children
o Effective approaches helping children manage anger and other negative emotions
To help / train children to find positive outlets to regulate their emotions
Ex. Turtle technique find a corner and curl up like a turtle and take a couple
minutes to think and figure out your emotions
Social policies
o Knowledge of child development permits informed decisions about social-policy
questions that affect children
o Research can inform social policies such as those involving testimonies from preschool
children
Understanding human nature
o Child development research provides insights into intriguing questions regarding human
nature
o Children adopted from inadequate orphanages in Romania human nature is
sufficiently flexible, but the timing of experiences is also important
HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENTAL
PSYCHOLOGY
Early philosophical perspectives
4th century B.C
o The beginnings of nature / nurture debate
o Plato innate knowledge, self-control, and discipline
o Aristotle knowledge comes from experiences, fitting to the needs to the individual child
2000 years later
o Thomas Hobbes (1558-1679)
original sin inherently bad and passive creatures
o Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
Innate purity inherently good and actively involved in development
o John Locke (1632-1704)
Tabula rasa (blank slate) entirely and passively shaped by experience
The emergence of a research focused approach
19th century
o Two converging forces
Social reform movements
Charles Darwins theory of evolution 1877
Early scientific approach
o Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Baby biographies
Child development retraces the entire evolutionary history of the species
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o G. Stanley Hall (1846 -1924)
The founder of developmental psychology
Questionnaire and large-scale scientific investigation
Child development as a science - late 19th and early 20th centuries
Influential theories of development
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
o Psychoanalytic theory - The influence of unconscious desires on development
o The iportae of earl ear’s eperiee ad eotio od
o Three components of personality
ID it, irrational mind
Gratify biological instincts immediately
Ego I, rational mind
Find realistic solutions
Superego above me, moral, conscience mind
Internalize moral values and standards
John Watson (1878-1958)
o Behaviouristic theory
o Excluded subjective phenomena emotions, thoughts, motives
o Emphasis on nurture child development is controlled by environmental factors
o Classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov dog
John Watson little Albert experiment
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
o Theory of cognitive development
o Intelligence a basic life process
o Scheme / cognitive structure
o Cognitive developmental stages
o Discovery-based education
ENDURING THEMES IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Nature and nurture
Nurture biological endowment, genes
Nurture environmental (physical and social) influences
Interaction of biological and environment
Today both contribute to change (middle ground)
Active / passive
Active - children actively contribute to their own development
o Active child:
Young children attentional patterns, use of language, play
Older children and adolescents actively seek out their own environment
Passive children are passive recipients of environmental influence
Continuity vs. Discontinuity
Continuous
o 1. Development is additive and gradual
o 2. Quantitative changes
Discontinuous
o 1. Development is a series of discrete stages
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o 2. Qualitative changes
Dependent on how you look at it
o Continuous examining height yearly from birth to 18 years
o Discontinuous examining annual weight changes / gais i the sae o’s height from
birth to 18 years
Dependent on what aspects of development you look at
o Reading, writing, etc.
o Fine motor skills
Mechanisms of developmental change
Interaction of genes and environment
o Genes the production of neurotransmitters, are associated with task performance
o Environmental and learning experiences the expression of genes and the wiring of the
brain system
The sociocultural context
Sociocultural context: physical, social, cultural, economic, and historical circumstances
Context differ within and between cultures
o Development is affected by ethnicity, race and socioeconomic status (SES)
Individual difference
Sources of this variation
o Genetic differences
o Treatment by parents and others
o Reactions to experiences
o Choices of environment
Research ad childre’s elfare
Earl diagosis ad tiel itervetio of hildre’s proles – ex. cataract in children
Improving education parenting, and social policies ex. intelligence and learning
DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH METHODS
The scientific method
Identify a problem / question
Formulate a hypothesis
Gather data to test the hypothesis
o Reliability
o Validity
Data analysis and conclusions
Basic methods of data collection describing behaviour
Self-report methodologies
o Interviews structured vs. Clinical
Structured set / structured set of questions
Clinical based on the situation; open-ended; follow up questions asked are
dependent on the response of your interviewee
o Questionnaires
Observation
o Naturalistic ex. home, school etc.
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