PSY 302 Study Guide - Final Guide: Anger Management, Neurochemistry, Peer Pressure

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Published on 21 Apr 2020
School
Ryerson University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 302
Professor
1. People of approximately the same age and status who are unrelated to one another are
called:
A) friends.
B) peers.
C) acquaintances. D) associated.
2. Friendship is NOT defined as a relationship that is:
1. A) characterized by reciprocities.
2. B) between same-sex members.
3. C) conflictual
4. D) one sided.
3. Which attribute is NOT a common characteristic of children's friendships?
1. A) same-sex members
2. B) intimate
3. C) involve conflict
4. D) aggression
4. Which element is a key factor in preschoolers' choices of friends?
1. A) proximity
2. B) popularity
3. C) race of child
4. D) similarity of interests
5. Children's preference for same-sex friends emerges in:
1. A) toddlerhood.
2. B) preschool.
3. C) elementary school.
4. D) middle school.
6. For May, an Asian American child in the United States, which variable is likely to be the
LEAST important factor in her selection of friends?
1. A) similarity in age
2. B) being of the same sex
3. C) antisocial behavior
4. D) similarity in interests
Page 1
7. Children with cross-racial or cross-ethnic friendships tend to be:
1. A) of low peer-group status.
2. B) prone to disruptive behavior.
3. C) socially competent.
4. D) no different from children with only same-race and same-ethnicity friends.
8. Children and adolescents tend to be more similar to their friends than to their nonfriends
in all of the following except:
1. A) acceptance by peers.
2. B) depression.
3. C) self-perceptions of competence.
4. D) eye color.
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9. Children's choices of friends exhibit which pattern?
1. A) “Absence makes the heart grow fonder.”
2. B) “Opposites attract.”
3. C) “Birds of a feather flock together.”
4. D) “Easy come, easy go.”
10. Cultural differences in values and expectations about the skills that are necessary for
children appear NOT to be associated with:
1. A) parents' concern for children's well-being.
2. B) parental gatekeeping of peer interactions.
3. C) parents' beliefs about the importance of peer relations.
4. D) children's behavior when they are in social interactions with peers.
11. Which statement about the friendships of children under the age of 2 is TRUE?
1. A) They appear to be able to select, prefer, and have more positive interactions
with
some children over others.
2. B) They show some preference for playing with some children but show no other
differential behavior toward these preferred playmates.
3. C) They show more positive affect toward some children but do not appear to be
more
likely to seek them out as playmates.
4. D) They are incapable of having a preferred playmate.
12. At
1. A) infancy
2. B) toddlerhood
3. C) early childhood
4. D) late childhood
what age are children capable of showing preference for some children over others?
Page 2
13. _____ does NOT occur more frequently with young children's friends than with their
nonfriends.
1. A) Ignoring the other's distress
2. B) Conflict
3. C) Positive interactions
4. D) Pretend play
14. Pretend play involves:
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1. A) imaginary companions.
2. B) taking the role of another person or character.
3. C) symbolic actions.
4. D) cooperating with another child.
15. Compared with nonfriends, preschool-age friends have _____ levels of conflict, and their
conflict is resolved _____ equitably.
1. A) lower; more
2. B) lower; less
3. C) greater; more
4. D) greater; less
16. Compared with adolescents' conceptions, school-age children's friendship conceptions
are:
1. A) more concrete.
2. B) focused more on intimacy.
3. C) defined more in terms of loyalty.
4. D) more egalitarian.
17. When asked about her best friend, Rasamee says, “My best friend is Annie. We do
everything together. We both love to play four square, and we always play it together at
recess. Annie lives near me, and she has so many fun toys that I love to play with.” This
description of Rasamee's friendship is MOST characteristic of children of what age?
1. A) 2 years old
2. B) 4 years old
3. C) 7 years old
4. D) 10 years old
Page 3
18. At approximately what age do children tend to define their friends, to a greater extent, in
terms of taking care of one's needs, reducing loneliness, and sharing feelings?
1. A) 5 years old
2. B) 7 years old
3. C) 9 years old
4. D) 11 years old
19. Selman proposed that changes in children's thinking about friendships are a result of
changes in:
1. A) their ability to take others' perspectives into account.
2. B) how they are able to express their ideas.
3. C) what they need from their friends.
4. D) hormones and neurochemistry.
20. Which statements about the support provided to school-age children by friends is not
true?
1. A) Friends' ability to provide children with support in unfamiliar situations
begins at approximately age 9.
2. B) Having friendships, regardless of the quality, is a significant buffer against
loneliness.
3. C) Chronic friendlessness is associated with depression.
4. D) Children who do not have friends fare just as well as those that do.
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Document Summary

People of approximately the same age and status who are unrelated to one another are called, friends, peers, acquaintances. Least important factor in her selection of friends: a) similarity in age, b) being of the same sex, c) antisocial behavior, d) similarity in interests. We both love to play four square, and we always play it together at recess. Internet for communication more often than those who are socially anxious and lonely. This supports: a) increased control over interactions in teen friendships, b) the rich-get-richer hypothesis, c) reduced emphasis on physical appearance via the use of online communication, d) the social-compensation hypothesis. Page 9: when asked who their closest friend is, dana and wendy both name each other. Dana and wendy are considered to be: a) exclusive best friends, b) popular, c) well accepted, d) best friends, friendship groups that children form or voluntarily join are referred to as: a) societies, cliques.

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