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PSY 505 Study Guide - Final Guide: Agreeableness

7 Pages
Fall 2014

Course Code
PSY 505
Paul Brunet
Study Guide

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PSY505 FINAL EXAM Review Lecture
-75 MC
-3 short answers
-Dec 11 @ 3pm in GYM (upper gym in KHW)
-2.5 hours
Exam Covers
-Allport (chapter 7 and lecture)
-Cattell, Eysenck and McCrae & Costa (just lecture, no book)
-Maslow (Chapter 9 and lecture)
-Rogers (Chapter 10 and lecture)
-Skinner (Chapter 11 and lecture)
-Bandura (Chapter 12 and lecture)
-JUST KELLY (Chapter 9 and lecture)  TAs lecture
-Artificial personality (lecture only)
-Chapter 14 (NOT ON EXAM)
-Chapter 15 (only few questions, very brief)
Chapter 15
-Summarizes the following
Genetic factor
Environmental factor
Learning factor
Parental factor
Developmental factor
Consciousness factor
Unconsciousness factor
Pre-Midterm Stuff
-Don’t need to know the details for pre-midterm theories
-Just need to know how the theories/theorists differ from the post-midterm ones
Traits Approach
-The textbook labels them as genetics approach, but I told you I prefer the
traditional label of traits approach, what were the 2 reasons I gave?
1. Calling it a genetics approach but they are not looking at DNA or studying
2. Genetics approach is saying that they are 100% on the nature side and not
nurture side but the truth is that the theory DO lean on the nurture side too so it
makes no sense to call it a genetics approach
-How does Allport approach to traits differ from the others (Cattell, Eyesenck,
Allport differed from the others because Allport listed 18,000 (which combination
from these describe us?) and we listed a few that apply to us and the other
theorists have dimensions on how we are (Ex. on a scale from 1-10, how much do
we have)
-What are traits and personal dispositions according to Allport? And what were his
previous labels for these terms?
Traits (shared by everyone) and personal dispositions (unique to a person)
according to Allport are his new terms.
His previous label for personal dispositions was individual traits and his previous
label for traits was common traits
-Name and describe the 3 types of Allport’s personal dispositions
(Most intense) Cardinal Trait  very rare and most of us don’t have it, it is the
dominant trait and if you have it, it is what everybody knows you by
Central dispositions  For people who don’t have the cardinal trait, the central
dispositions are the ones that best describes you
(Least intense) Secondary dispositions  more situational based, and explains
certain positions and scenarios
-According to Allport, what are habits and what are attitudes?
Habits are inflexible response to specific stimuli
Attitudes are your position/stance on something
-Explain Allport’s functional autonomy of motives? What are the implications for
your adult personality?
Functional autonomy of motives are that the current personality is independant of
your past personality, it is the present and the future are important, your motives
are independant from your past motives
The implications for your adult personality is
-What is Allport’s term for ego or self?
-What are Allport’s 6 characteristics of optimal development?
1. Incorporation of others
2. Compassion, intimacy and tolerance of others
3. Self-acceptance
4. Sense of purpose
5. Sense of humour
6. Unifying philosophy of life (responsible for directing personality towards
future goals)
-How many traits does Cattell, Eysenck, and McCrae & Costa think are needed to
explain personality?
16 Personality factors (PF), 3 ENP Eysenck and the Big 5 for McCrae and Costa
-What are the names of Eysenck’s traits?
3 (Extroversion vs. introversion and neroticism vs. emotional stability and
psychoticism vs. impulse control

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PSY505 FINAL EXAM Review Lecture Exam ­75 MC ­3 short answers ­Dec 11 @ 3pm in GYM (upper gym in KHW) ­2.5 hours Exam Covers ­Allport (chapter 7 and lecture) ­Cattell, Eysenck and McCrae & Costa (just lecture, no book) ­Maslow (Chapter 9 and lecture) ­Rogers (Chapter 10 and lecture) ­Skinner (Chapter 11 and lecture) ­Bandura (Chapter 12 and lecture) ­JUST KELLY (Chapter 9 and lecture)  ▯TA’s lecture ­Artificial personality (lecture only) ­REBT & CBT (NOT ON EXAM) ­Chapter 14 (NOT ON EXAM) ­Chapter 15 (only few questions, very brief) Chapter 15 ­Summarizes the following • Genetic factor • Environmental factor • Learning factor • Parental factor • Developmental factor • Consciousness factor • Unconsciousness factor Pre­Midterm Stuff ­Don’t need to know the details for pre­midterm theories ­Just need to know how the theories/theorists differ from the post­midterm ones REVIEW QUESTIONS (MIGHT BE ON SHORT ANSWER SECTION) Traits Approach ­The textbook labels them as genetics approach, but I told you I prefer the  traditional label of traits approach, what were the 2 reasons I gave? • 1. Calling it a genetics approach but they are not looking at DNA or studying  genetics • 2. Genetics approach is saying that they are 100% on the nature side and not  nurture side but the truth is that the theory DO lean on the nurture side too so it  makes no sense to call it a genetics approach ­How does Allport approach to traits differ from the others (Cattell, Eyesenck,  ETC)? • Allport differed from the others because Allport listed 18,000 (which combination  from these describe us?) and we listed a few that apply to us and the other  theorists have dimensions on how we are (Ex. on a scale from 1­10, how much do  we have) ­What are traits and personal dispositions according to Allport? And what were his  previous labels for these terms? • Traits (shared by everyone) and personal dispositions (unique to a person)  according to Allport are his new terms.  • His previous label for personal dispositions was individual traits and his previous  label for traits was common traits ­Name and describe the 3 types of Allport’s personal dispositions • (Most intense) Cardinal Trait  ▯very rare and most of us don’t have it, it is the  dominant trait and if you have it, it is what everybody knows you by • Central dispositions  ▯For people who don’t have the cardinal trait, the central  dispositions are the ones that best describes you • (Least intense) Secondary dispositions  ▯more situational based, and explains  certain positions and scenarios ­According to Allport, what are habits and what are attitudes? • Habits are inflexible response to specific stimuli • Attitudes are your position/stance on something ­Explain Allport’s functional autonomy of motives? What are the implications for  your adult personality? • Functional autonomy of motives are that the current personality is independant of  your past personality, it is the present and the future are important, your motives  are independant from your past motives • The implications for your adult personality is ­What is Allport’s term for ego or self? • Proprium ­What are Allport’s 6 characteristics of optimal development? • 1. Incorporation of others • 2. Compassion, intimacy and tolerance of others • 3. Self­acceptance • 4. Sense of purpose • 5. Sense of humour • 6. Unifying philosophy of life  (responsible for directing personality towards  future goals) ­How many traits does Cattell, Eysenck, and McCrae & Costa think are needed to  explain personality? • 16 Personality factors (PF), 3 ENP Eysenck and the Big 5 for McCrae and Costa ­What are the names of Eysenck’s traits? • 3 (Extroversion vs. introversion and neroticism vs. emotional stability and  psychoticism vs. impulse control  ­Name and describe McCrae & Costa’s traits. • 5 (the big 5, OCEAN) Openness to experiences, conscientiousness, extroversion,  agreeableness, neuroticism ­Which of the 3 is the most commonly accepted today? • The big 5 ­What statistical technique was used to establish their sets of traits? • The statistical technique that was used to establish their (all the theorists above)  sets of traits was factor analysis (get thousands of people to fill out  questionnaires and surveys and they analyze the data and group them) ­Which trait is most common in personality theories (dating as far back as the  ancient Greeks? • The most common trait in personality theories is extroversion vs. introversion as a  pair Humanist Approach ­What are the 5 levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? • Physiological, safety & needs, belongingness, esteem, self­actualization ­How does the hierarchy work? • Must satisfy the lower levels in order for you to move up, it is usually temporary  if you moved down but it is possible for someone to move down and never get  back up ­What is the main role of needs? • Activate and direct behaviour according to Maslow ­Explain the mini second hierarchy in Maslow’s theory • There’s a mini hierarchy where the lowest need is the need to know and the  next step is the need to understand (check audio for rest). In order to be self­ actualized, you must satisfy the main hierarchy and the mini one ­What are the 4 conditions must be met to achieve optimal development according  to Maslow? • 1.  • 2. • 3. • 4. ­According to Maslow, self­actualizers have 12 characteristics (only need to know  peak experiences, don’t need to know all 12) within 4 dimensions. What are the 4  dimensions? • 1. Honesty • 2. trust • 3. freedom  • 4. Awareness ­What are peak experiences? • A moment of ecstacy, meaningfulness, trensendence according to Maslow’s part  of self­actualization ­What are the metaneeds and metapathologies? • Metaneeds are a set of needs that once you reach self­actualization, the things you  will need to self­actualize • Metapathologies are when you are stuck to the metaneeds and can’t self­actualize ­Why is the Humanistic approach considered the most optimistic? • It’s considered the most optimistic because optimal is possible and you don’t have  to go through crisis, conflicts and anxiety and no matter how bad it gets you can  always recover. Additionally, there’s a lot of freedom of choice. ­Name and describe the 3 basic motives/needs according to Rogers. • 1.  need for positive regard from others • 2.  need for positive regard from self • 3.  actualization tendency (Maslow refers to this as Self­Actualization but Rogers  also has a self­actualization) ­What are conditions of worth? • The idea/belied that you NEED to achieve respect, love and approval from others  which reinforces your positive regard from others (check audio for this) ­Explain congruent and incongruent personalities according to Rogers. • Congruent personalities are healthy personalities and are fully aware of yourself  in that your experiences and self­concept of who you are match up. we aim for  this. This is when we know ourselves.  • Incongruent personalities are when our actual experiences and who we think we  are do not match. Ex. you distort your experiences or fabricate your experiences  to make them match who you think you are. 
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