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Ryerson University
PSY 102
Kosha Bramesfeld

CHAPTER 1 SCIENCEPsychology scientific study of the mind brain behaviour o Biological molecules brain structure o Psychological thoughts feelings emotions o Social cultural relating to others personal relationships 1875Psychology is born o Late 1800s psychology broke away from philosophybegan to use the tools of science to explore the mindo In 1875 William James created a small psychology laboratory at Harvard University o In 1879 Wilhelm Wundt conducted the first psychology experiment in Leipzig GermanyTitchener structuralismUsing images sensations feelingsJames functionalismIdentify adaptive purposes of psychAsks why we develop psych characteristicWatsonSkinner behaviourismObservable behaviourConditioning helped to understandPiagetNeisser cognitivismRelation between thinkingbrain activityThinking is essential to human behaviourFreud psychoanalysisFocus on internal psych processes subconscious Representative heuristic make judgements based on a typical prototypeAvailability heuristic judgement based on how easily something comes to mindOverconfidence tendency to overestimate our own predictionsHindsight bias things seem too obviousHypothesis testable predictions derived from sci theory Pseudoscience set of claims that seem scientific but arent Warning signs o Exaggerated claims o Overreliance on anecdotes referencing first hand experiencesscience o Lack of connectivity to other research o Lack of peer review o Lack of selfcorrection o Meaningless psychobabble using bullshit psych terms to sound legit o Proofevidence 6 Principles of Scientific Thinking 1 Rival hypotheses critical thinkingset of skills for evaluating all claims in an openminded and careful fashion2 Correlation vs causationerror of assumption that because one thing is associated with another it must cause the other3 Falsifiabilityassertions about the world that cannot be tested and disproved4 ReplicabilityWhen a studys findings are able to be duplicated by other independent professionals5 Extraordinary Claims require extraordinary evidence 6 Parsimonyif two explanations account equally well for a phenomenon select the simpler of the two CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODSWho The Sample o The theoretical populationwho you want to generalize to o The study populationthe population for which you can gain access o The sampling framethe procedure by which you plan to access the population o The samplewho is actually in your study o Representative samplehaving the same characteristics as the population o Random selectionthe selection process is random What The Variable o Xindependent o Ydependent o Reliability consistency of a measure over different itemstimesraters o Validity extent to which a measure asses what it measuresA measure can be reliable but not valid When Time Frame o Crosssectional single time period o Longitudinal over time Where Setting o Lab vs field How Research Design o Case study examines one person over time o Naturalistic observation observes behaviour in real world settings wo manipulatingchanging situation o Correlational designs examines association between 2 variablesCorrelation does not equal causationTemporal order XY vs YXCant rule out alternative explanationsCausality comparable differenceassociation temporal order rule out alternatives o Experimental designs manipulates independent variables to examine causal impact on an outcomeRandomly assign ppl to groupsensures groups begin the same Why Validity o Internal validity causeandeffect inferences XY o External validity generalize to real world settings
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