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PSY105 - Chapter 7

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PSY 105
Helene Moore

CHAPTER 7 : SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY  SOCIALPSYCHOLOGY • thoughts, feelings, behaviour are influenced by others • can be present or can be implied by their presence o Ex: I don't want to go to the party • STANLEY MILGRIM o he does not think situation reflects our behaviour but it matters THE CULTURAL CONTEXT CULTURE • a set of beliefs, values and attitudes shared by most members of that community • standard of rules that govern the behaviour of member of a community • Self Identification: a way a person identifies him or herself o study behaviour that influence thoughts INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM • not until 1944 when a paper on culture psychology was published • Markus and Kitayama realized North American study does not apply to everyone in the world Individualist Culture • Ex: I am a dancer • put individuals needs in front of others • North American culture Collectivist Cultures • group harmony is thought of more highly than individual needs and desires • Asia's culture THE RULES OF CULTURE Self and self-Identity • how much of sense of self changes when you move from one situation to next • on average a person in US says "5-10%" changes in situation • In Asia, an average person says "90-99%" of their sense of self changes from situations The Organization of Time • Individualist - people won't wait very long for someone else • people will wait max for 15mins • Collectivist - people will wait 2 hours for someone else Non-verbal Communication • same gestures develop around the world • cultures differ and we need to be sensitive towards one another CULTURE AND SEXUALITY • Sambian Society of Papua New Guinea o belief of among men that female body is dangerous o men in teenage yeas associate with men • Amassalik Inuit o there is a practice where in which a male visitor of a married couple o male guest spends a single night in the couples bed with the wife o hospitality is offered once in the compound of couples house • Dr. Kellogg in US o masturbation was extremely bad o Dr.kellogg, a business man, made sure that no one masturbates again o he tried to figure out why people masturbate? This is because people eat too much meat o he came up with healthy cereal o he invented Kellogg cornflakes - Anti-Masturbation Product RELATIVISM IN THE STUDY OF CULTURE • if things are different, we should be able to accept them • be aware of the possibility for misunderstandings • work together to respect one another SOCIAL COGNITION: ATTITUDES • thoughts and ideas we have through/with people and our surroundings • social forces can be influence on attitudes • attitudes can change to justify new behaviours • when there is a clash between what a person believes and what they do, tension results. This is called COGNITIVE DISSONANCE o we change our beliefs to justify (or match) our action o some people like to be unpredictable o average person is consistent (they follow what they say) o people feel uncomfortable if you confront them about cognitive dissonance COGNITIVE DISSONANCE Festinger • he wanted to figure out if people wanted to change their attitude because of their behaviour • for an hour, the control group was turning square pegs on the board • they did not enjoy the task • the other two groups did the same task but the difference was that they were told to go out in the hallway and tell people how fun this activity was • if they did so they would be awarded $100 and $20 to another group • $20 group kept rating the task not enjoyable but on the other hand $1.00 group told people it was enjoyable • $20 group had the chance to say "I didn't like the task", "I got paid to say that it was fun" • $1.00 group had no other choice but to say "I like the task" • Problem = Cognitive Dissonance • $1.00 group had to change their beliefs ATTITUDES AND THE POWER OF PERSUASION • to persuade someone; use logic or provide facts • provide learning • decision made had high stakes (important decision) • Central Route To Persuasion: focus on content, factual information and logic to change attitudes o careful, deliberate arguments o when buying something expensive, we rely on facts • Peripheral Route: focuses on superficial information to change attitudes o superficial information and feelings o Example: attractive spokesperson, catchy jingle o buying something you're used to, you buy it based on looks and pretty packaging o this is based on superficial information PERSUASION STRATEGIES • to be able to change someone's opinion • to present yourself in a way where the attitude is more accepted • it is successful when people present both side of issues and they state the pros and cons • we tend to like a person m
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