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Psychology Chapter 15.docx

12 Pages

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PSY 124
Thomas Barbiero

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Psychology Chapter 15: Treatment of Psychological Disorders The Elements of the Treatment Process: Treatments: How Many Are There? 1. Insight Therapies (talk therapy): clients engage in complex verbal interactions with their therapists. This therapy can be conducted with one person, or in a group. Ex: family therapy, marriage therapy 2. Behaviour Therapies: behaviour therapists make direct efforts to alter problematic responses (ex: phobias) and maladaptive habits (ex: drug use). Most of their procedures involve classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. 3. Biomedical Therapies: involves interventions into a persons biological functioning; this includes drug therapy and electroconvulsive (shock) therapy. These treatments are only provided by physicians with a medical degree usually psychiatrists. Therapists: Who Provides Professional Treatment? 1. Psychologists: - Clinical psychologists: emphasize the treatment of full-fledged disorders - Counselling psychologists: focus on the treatment of everyday adjustment problems - Both types of psychologists must earn a doctors degree (Ph.D.) - Use either insight or behavioural approaches 2. Psychiatrists: physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders - Devote more time to severe disorders (schizophrenia, mood disorders) - They have an M.D. degree 3. Other Mental Health Professionals: - Clinical social workers - Psychiatric nurses - Counsellors Insight Therapies: involve verbal interactions intended to enhance clients self-knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behaviour. Psychoanalysis: emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defences through techniques such as free association and transference. Probing the Unconscious: - free association: clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible say whatever comes to mind despite how silly or embarrassing it is - analyst studies free associations for clues about what is going on in the clients unconscious - dream analysis: therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the clients dreams Freud believed dreams were the royal road to the unconscious He believed dreams were the most direct means of access to patients innermost conflicts, wishes, and impulses Clients are encouraged and trained to remember dreams, which they describe in therapy therapist then analyzes the symbolism in the dreams to interpret t heir meaning and treat the patient Interpretation: - Refers to the therapists attempts to explain the inner significance of the clients thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviours Resistance: - Refers to largely unconscious defensive manoeuvres intended to hinder the progress of therapy - Clients might try to resist the helping process because they dont want to face up to the painful, disturbing conflicts they have buried deep inside their unconscious - Even though they have sought help, they are still reluctant and afraid to confront their problems - Reluctance can take many forms: clients are late for their sessions, may express hostility toward their therapist, may pretend to engage in free association Transference: - Occurs when clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives Ex: client might start relating to the therapist as if the therapist is an overprotective mother, a rejecting brother, a passive spouse, etc - The client is transferring conflicting feelings about important people onto the therapist Modern Psychodynamic Therapies: - Although still available, classical psychoanalysis as done by Freud is not really practiced anymore - Today, psychoanalysis is adapted to different cultures, changing times, and new kinds of patients as compared to the ones Freud had in Vienna MANY years ago - These new approaches and descendants of psychoanalysis are collectively known as psychodynamic approaches to therapyClient-Centred Therapy: an insight therapy that emphasize providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy. - It is the client who knows what hurts, what directions to go, what problems are crucial, and what experiences have been deeply buried - So even though it sounds silly that a troubled, untrained client is put in charge of the pace and direction of the therapy, it makes sense - Provide a good emotionally supportive environment because the troubled patient is the one who knows most about their own problems thus, it makes sense that they are the ones who determine the pace and direction of their own treatment Therapeutic Climate: - The process of therapy is not as important as the emotional climate in which the therapy takes place - In order to create an atmosphere of emotional support, client-centred therapists must provide three conditions: genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathy - Rogers firmly believed that a supportive emotional climate is the critical force promoting healthy changes in therapy Therapeutic Process: - The client and therapist work together as equals
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