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PSY202 Exam Notes .docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 202
Professor
Janice Kuo
Semester
Winter

Description
Intelligence and IQ Testing Conceptualizing Intelligence: What Is It? Sensory Capacity - Sir Francis Galton proposed a radical hypothesis - Knowledge comes through the senses - Better senses, better acquisition of knowledge Abstract Thinking - Binet and Simon had a goal to identify students who might require additional instruction - They developed the first intelligence test (diagnostic tool designed to measure overall thinking ability) - Intelligence has something to do with abstract thinking (capacity to understand hypothetical concepts) “G” General Intelligence - Spearman argued that a single factor, “g” general intelligence (accounts for overall differences in intellect among people), underlies performance on a variety of mental tests - Aseparate factor, “s” specific abilities (particular ability level in a narrow domain), is unique to each particular test Fluid Intelligence Vs. Crystallized Intelligence - Fluid Intelligence (capacity to learn new ways of solving problems): uninfluenced by experience and schooling - Crystallized Intelligence (knowledge of the world acquired overtime): reflects schooling and cultural background Biological Bases of Intelligence Brain Size/Volume - Correlates positively (.3 to .4) with measured intelligence Reaction Time - How long it takes someone to respond to a stimulus - Correlates negatively (-.3 to -.4) with reaction time tasks Location - Prefrontal cortex activated during reasoning tasks - Involved in planning, impulse control, short term memory, and working memory Action, Intelligence and Memory, Putting ItAll Together Measuring Intelligence What Do Intelligence Tests MeasureAbout The Mind? - IQ: The Intelligence Quotient - Extremes of Intelligence - Validity of Intelligence Testing IQ - Invented by Stern - Intelligence Quotient= MentalAge / ChronologicalAge x 100 - Deviation IQ: expression of a person’s IQ relative to his or her same-aged peers - IQ tests measure mental speed and span of working memory and mental self- government Extremes of Intelligence - Mental Retardation: onset prior to adulthood, poor adaptive functioning, scores below 70 on IQ test - Giftedness: IQ at 130 or higher - Savant: individual with a special talent despite low IQ Genetic Influences on IQ - Twin Studies: compare correlations in IQ in identical and fraternal twins, between 40 and 70% of IQ is accounted for by heritability - Adoption Studies: whether children who are adopted have intelligence more similar to adoptive or biological parents Environmental Influences on IQ - Zajonc says, IQ steadily declines with increasing numbers of children - Schooling - Deprivation Sex Differences in Intelligence - Few studies have found differences - Men tend to have wider and more variable distribution of IQ - Differences tend to be small - Women do better on some verbal tasks - Women better at detecting emotions - Men better at spatial tasks, mental rotation Race Differences in Intelligence - Hispanic andAfricanAmericans score lower than Caucasians, andAsian Americans tend to score higher - Test Bias: tendency of a test to predict outcomes better in one group than another - Within-group heritability: extent to which the variability of a trait within a group is genetically influenced - Between-group heritability: extent to which differences in a trait between groups is genetically influenced - Stereotype threat: fear that we may confirm a negative group stereotype Other Terms - Divergent thinking: capacity to generate many different solutions to problems - Convergent thinking: capacity to generate the single best solution to a problem - Emotional intelligence: ability to understand our own emotions and those of others, and to apply this information to our daily lives Human Development Development - Developmental Psychology: the study of how behaviour changes over time - Special considerations are post hoc fallacy and bidirectional influences - Post Hoc Fallacy: false assumption that because one event occurred before another, it must have caused that event - Bidirectional influences: developmental influences are a two way street Experimental Designs - Cross-sectional designs: examine people of different ages at a single time point - Longitudinal designs: track the development of the same group of people over time Myths of Early Experience - Infant Determinism: assumption that early experiences are more influential in our development than later ones - Childhood fragility: assumption that children are extremely delicate Nature Vs. Nurture - They interact! - Gene-environment interaction: impact of genes depends on the environment in which the behaviour develops - Nature via nurture: genetic predispositions can drive us to select and create particular environments - Gene expression: some genes “turn on” only in response to specific environmental events Prenatal Development: Zygote to Baby - Zygote: fertilized egg - Blastocyst: ball of identical cells early in pregnancy that haven’t taken on a specific function in a body part yet - Embryo: second to eighth week of development, during which limbs, facial features, and major organs take form - Fetus: ninth week until birth after all major organs are established and physical maturation is the primary change Prenatal Development Obstacles - Teratogens: environmental factor that can harm development - Genetic disruptions of fetal development (random errors in cell division) Motor Development - Reflexes: automatic motor behaviours, often present at birth - Motor Behaviours: self-initiated body movements Cognitive Development How Do Children Think, Learn, Reason, and Communicate? Jean Piaget - Constructivist Theory: children construct an understanding of their world based on observations of the effects of their behaviour - Assimilation >Accomodation - Assimilation: process of absorbing new experience into current knowledge structures - Accomodation: process of altering a belief to make it more compatible with experience Piaget’s Tests - Object permanence: knowing an object exists even when you cannot see it, 8-12 months - Egocentrism: inability to see the world from others’perspective - Conservation: despite transformation, the amount remains the same Four Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years No thought beyond immediate physical experiences Preoperational 2 to 7 years Able to think beyond here and now, but egocentric and unable to perform mental transformations Concrete Operations 7 to 11 years Able to perform mental transformations but only on concrete physical objects Formal Operations 11 years to adulthood Able to perform hypothetical and abstract reasoning Vygotsky: Social and Cultural Influences on Learning - Scaffolding: mechanism in which parents provide initial assistance in children’s learning but gradually remove structure as children become more competent - Zone of proximal development: phase of learning during which children can benefit from instruction Landmarks of Cognitive Development - Explains the process by which children acquire knowledge in important cognitive domains - Physical Reasoning - Categorizing Objects - Concept of the self and others - Theory of the mind - Mathematics Social and Moral Development - Describes how and when children establish emotional bonds with their caregivers - Stranger anxiety: fear of strangers develops around 8 months - Attachment: strong emotional connection - Imprinting: phenomenon observed in which baby birds begin to follow around and attach themselves to any large moving object they see in the hours immediately after hatching Infant Bonding: Harlow’s Monkeys - Studied infant rhesus monkeys separated from their mother after birth - One wire monkey with milk and one monkey with warm cloth - Contact comfort: positive emotions afforded by touch Attachment Styles Attachment Style Caregiver Behavior Temperament - Explains the environmental and genetic influences on social behaviour and social style in children - Temperament: basic emotional style that appears early in development and is largely genetic in origin - Certain temperaments may elicit certain attachment behaviours from parents Baumrind’s Parenting Styles - Permissive: lenient, affectionate, very little punishment - Authoritarian: strict, show little affection - Authoritative: support children, but set fare and firm limits - Uninvolved: neglectful, ignore children - Average expectable environment: one that provides children with basic needs for affection and discipline, is likely “good enough” Self Control - Mischel’s delay-of-gratification task - Children must inhibit their desire to eat a treat if the want to receive a bigger reward later Moral Development - Determine how children’s understanding of morality and important social concepts like gender development Kohlberg’s Scheme of Moral Development - Score the reasoning process - Preconventional morality: steal because you can get away with it, but don’t because you might get caught - Conventional morality: steal because others will look down on him if he lets his wife die, but don’t because it’s against the law - Postconventional morality: steal because protection of human life is a higher moral principle than can overrule stealing, but don’t because it violates thou shalt not steal Erikson’s Lifespan Development - Personal Identity: sense of self, who you are as an individual and how well you measure up against peers - Erikson’s idea: sense of self shaped by psychological crisis at certain points in life Motivation and Emotions What Makes Us Move What is an emotion? - Emotions are loosely coordinated changes in experiential, behavioral, and peripheral - Emotions typically have objects, and play out over the course of seconds or minutes Discrete Emotions Theory - Theory that humans experience a small number of distinct emotions - Evolutionarily adaptive - Emotional expressions may be the by-products of innate motor programs - Primary emotions: cross-culturally universal emotions such as happiness, disgust, sadness, fear, surprise, anger - Secondary emotions: our brains create an enormous array of secondary emotions from a small number of primary emotions, example: hatred seems to be a mix of anger and disgust Culture and Emotional Expression - Display rules vary across culture - Display rules: cross-cultural guidelines for how and when to express emotions - Emotions might be experienced the same way across cultures, but expressed differently Cognitive Theories of Emotion - Emotions are products of thinking, not innate motor programs - There are as many different kinds of emotions as thoughts; there are no discrete emotions - James-Lange Theory: theory proposing that emotions result from our interpretations of our bodily reactions to stimuli, example: we see a bear and run away/ we’re afraid because we run away - Somatic Marker Theory: theory proposing that we use our “gut reactions” to help us determine how we should act, example: heart pounds during a first date so we use it as a marker to decide if we want to ask for a second date - Cannon-Bard Theory: theory proposing that an emotion-provoking event leads simultaneously to an emotion and to bodily reactions, example: seeing a bear triggers both fear and running at the same time - Two-Factor Theory: theory proposing that emotions are produced by an undifferentiated state of arousal along with an attribution (explanation) of that arousal, example: we see a bear and become physiologically aroused and then try to figure out its source (seeing the bear) Unconscious Influences on Emotion - Automatic Generation of Emotion: a good deal of our behaviour is produced automatically, example: a set of positive and negative words are presented and they appear so quickly that they were subliminal, below the threshold for awareness - Facial Feedback Hypothesis: theory that blood vessels in the face feed back temperature information in the brain, altering our experience of emotions, example: people who watched cartoons with a pen held between their teeth were happier than those who had to hold it between their lips Nonverbal Expression of Emotion Body Language - Explains the importance of nonverbal expression of emotion - Nonverbal leakage: unconscious spillover of emotions into nonverbal behaviour Gestures - Gestures come in a seemingly endless variety of forms - Illustrators: gestures that highlight or accentuate speech, example: while making an important point we might forcefully move our hands forward - Manipulators: gestures in which one body part strokes, presses, bites, or otherwise touches another body part, example: while cramming for an exam, we may twirl our hair or bite our fingernails - Emblems: gestures that convey conventional meanings that are recognized by members of a culture, example: hand wave, OK sign, and nodding the head Proxemics - The study of personal space - Positively correlated with emotional distance - Increases with adulthood - Public distance: 3m or more - Social distance: 1m to 3m - Personal distance: half m to 1m - Intimate distance: less than half a meter Emotion Regulation - Emotions are often functional and help to tune attention, adjust sensory intake, prepare behavioural responses, etc - But emotions are not always functional - This means that people sometimes need to regulate their emotions - This construct has multiple meanings: regulation by emotion, regulation of emotion - Processes that influence which emotions one has, when one has them, and how one experiences and expresses these emotions - Two strategies: suppression and reappraisal - Suppression: decreasing ongoing emotion-expressive behaviour, behaving in such a way that a person watching you would not know you were feeling anything - Reappraisal: modifying the meaning of a situation so as to decrease its impact Lying and Lie Detection - Identify major lie-detection methods and their pitfalls Humans as Lie Detectors - Usually not accurate in detecting lies (barely above chance) - We frequently rely on people’s nonverbal behaviours to detect if they are lying - When researchers ask people to lie about something, their gestures are very telling, illustrators decrease and manipulators and emblems increase - Yet none of these gestures are foolproof indicators of dishonesty Polygraph Tests - 98% accurate - Pinocchio response: supposedly perfect physiological or behaviour indicators of lying, bodily reactions give them away - Controlled Question Test (CQT): measures suspects’physiological responses following three major types of yes-no questions: - Relevant questions: “did you do it” questions - Irrelevant questions: “is your name Sam Jones” questions - Control ques
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