Study Guides (238,472)
Canada (115,151)
Psychology (435)
PSY 202 (48)

Introduction to Psychology II - complete course notes

34 Pages
Unlock Document

Ryerson University
PSY 202
Janice Kuo

INTELLIGENCEDefinitionGalton knowledge is a measure of our sensory capacity because it comes through the sensesone with sharp senses acquires knowledge better o However different types of sensory capacity are weakly correlated o Measures of sensory ability are weakly correlated with other assessments of intelligence o Helen KellerBinetSimon developed a test to measure abstract thinking to assist children who may need additional schoolingmeasured through the capacity to understand hypothetical rather than concrete concepts eg constructing sentences using 3 given words determining the similarity between 2 items they were strongly correlated as a measure of intelligenceGgeneral intelligence a single factor that underlies performance on a variety of mental tests explaining the strong correlations of abstract thinkingthe test subjects are just generally allaround intelligent vs Sspecific intelligenceIntelligence measured byFluid ability to solve reason and remembernot influenced by experience or school decreases with age associated with general intelligenceCrystallized knowledge and abilities acquired from experience and schoolingmemorizing statistics terms dates etc increases with ageGardner multiple intelligencesinterpersonalsocial visualspatial localmathematical verballinguistic musicalrhythmic etcSternberg multiple intelligences but narrowed down into a triarchic model 1 Analytic intelligencemost closely related to general intelligence book smartsmath critical and analytical thinking etc 2 Creative intelligenceability to come up with novel answers 3 Practical intelligenceability to solve realworld problems adaptability independent of schooling street smartsBiological basesBrain capacity volume correlates positively correlates to intelligencebut is it the whole brain that matters or just specific parts eg Einsteins brain was smaller than the average but his parietal cortex was larger important to remember that correlation doesnt equal causationnutrition could be the cause of bothReaction time to a novel stimuliIntelligence correlates negatively with reaction time less time taken to reacthigher intelligencePrefrontal cortexactivated during reasoning taskssophisticated thinking eg planning impulse control shortterm and working memoryholding information in the mind while using it in collaboration with other informationMeasuring intelligenceIntelligence quotient invented by SternMeasures mental speedreaction time span of working memory mental selfgovernment of the different components of the brain that carry out different tasksDeviation intelligence quotient determining IQ based on how performance compares with other subjects in the same age rangeit was found that mental age levels off with chronological age meaning inaccurate IQ results over timeReliability consistency of the test is nearly perfect in testretest reliability Validity how much does the test really measure what it shouldDoes it correlate with other measures of intelligence eg correlation of IQ with school or work achievementperformance is highExtremesMental retardation 70 IQ and poor adaptive functioningAffects 13 of population most cases are mild and can still be mainstreamedCauses genetic abnormalities mutation of X chromosome or extra chromosome 21Higher severitylower inheritabilityGiftedness 130 IQ Savant extremely high special intelligence with low general intelligenceTerman identified 1500 high school students with 135 IQ found that they have above average physical health prestigious careers low rates of mental illnessGenetic influencesGalton proportion of relatives with high intelligence in relation to a gifted individual decline the further away in relation they areintelligence seems to run biologically in familiesTwin studies compare IQ correlations in identical share 100 of genes and fraternal share 50 of genes twins identical twins share the same IQwith less correlation in fraternal twins4070 of IQ is decided by genetics which increases with adulthoodBouchard studied identical twins raised apart vs together to compare performance on IQ teststhe two sets did the same showing environment doesnt have much impactAdoption studies study whether children have closer IQ to biologicalgenetic or adoptiveenvironmental parentsadopted childrens IQs initially resemble that of adoptive parents but are closer to biological parents with age environment only affects IQ early on then genes take overEnvironmental influencesZajonc IQ declines with increased number of childrenlarger familieslower IQ children BUT There is no regression within families child 5 wouldnt have lower IQ than child 1Schoolinghigher IQSocioeconomic status Jensen found that blacks had older siblings with lower IQ than their younger siblingsshowed more intellectual deprivation with time due to low statusaccumulation of negative effectsNutritional supplementshigher school test scores Historical influencesFlynn there is a rise in IQ over time historically probably due to increased test sophisticationbetter measuresmost pronounced in culturefair tests about fluid intelligence which people have less exposure toChanges in home and schoolsmaller familiesmore time to spend on children and more time spent by children in schoolMore stimulating environmentgrowing complexity of the modern worldgrowing technologies must be kept up withBetter nutritionaffects lower tail of the bell curveSubsidizingafter the 100s these results level off and even declineSex as an influenceA few studies show there is a minimal increase in mens IQ male test scores are more widespread have a widermore variable distribution of scoreslowest male score is lower than that of the females and the highest male score is higher where womens test scores cluster at a more compact rangeSpecific mental abilitiesWomen do better in verbal spelling and writing arithmetic and recognizing emotionsMen do better with geography directions spatial ability mental rotationmay be environmental since both sexes of infants show the same spatial and counting abilities o The difference may not be innate but maybe is about problemsolving and approach
More Less

Related notes for PSY 202

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.