Study Guides (238,490)
Canada (115,164)
Psychology (435)
PSY 302 (58)

PSY302. Chapters- end of 1 and 2.docx

20 Pages
Unlock Document

Ryerson University
PSY 302
Alba Agostino

Child Psychology – Week 2  January 15, 2014 Readings: How Children Develop – Chapter 1 (25­ 38) & Chapter 2 The Scientific Method • Basic assumption – all beliefs, no matter how probable they seem and no matter  how many people share them, may be wrong. • Until beliefs have been tested, they must be viewed as hypotheses, that is, as  educated guesses, rather than as truth. • Steps of the scientific method o Choosing a question to be answered o Formulating a hypothesis regarding the question o Developing a method for testing the hypothesis. o Using the data yielded by the method to draw a conclusion regarding the  hypothesis • In order for the scientific method to work, researchers must use measures that are  directly relevant to the hypotheses being tested. • Reliability: to the degree to which independent measurements of a behavior  under the study are consistent. o Interrater Reliability: indicates how much agreement is in the  observations of different raters who witness the same behaviour. o Test­retest reliability: the degree of similarity of a child’s performance on  two or more occasions. • Validity: the degree to which it measures what it is intended to measure. o Internal Validity: the degree to which effects observed within  experiments can be attributed to the variables that the research  intentionally manipulated. o External Validity: the degree to which results can be generalized beyond  the particulars of the research. Contexts for Gathering Data About Children • Interviews o Structured interview: useful when the goal is to collect self­reports on  the same topics from everyone being studied. o Clinical Interviews: useful for obtaining in­depth information about an  individual child. The interviewer begins with a set of prepared questions,  but if the child says something intriguing, the interviewee can depart from  the script and follow up on the child’s lead.  Pros: • Yield a great deal of data quickly • Can provide in­depth info about individual children.3  Cons 1 Child Psychology – Week 2  January 15, 2014 • Answers to interview questions are biased.  • Children can report past events inaccurately • Children may avoid disclosing facts • May fail understand their own motivations • Naturalistic Observations o When wanting to describe children behaving in certain environments,  naturalistic observation is used o Naturalistic observation:  gathering data, observers try to remain  unobstructively in the background so they won’t influence the behaviours  they are observing. o Are useful for illuminating common everyday social interactions, such as  those b/w children and parents. o It yields detailed information about certain aspects of children’s everyday  lives, it also has important limitations – naturally occurring contexts vary  on many dimensions and it is often hard to know which ones influences  the behaviour of interest. o  Another limitation  : important behaviours occur only occasionally in the  everyday environment – reducing researchers’ opportunities to learn about  them. • Structured Observation o Researchers design a situation that will elicit behaviour relevant to a  hypothesis and then observe how different children behave in the  situation. o Researchers then related the observed behavior to characteristics of the  child (age, gender, personality) and to the child’s behaviour in other  situations that are also observed. o Advantage over naturalistic observation:  ensures that all the children  being studied encounter identical situations.  Allows direct comparisons of different children’s behaviour in  a given situations. o Disadvantage: does not provide as extensive information about  individual’s children’s subjective experience as do interviews. Correlation and Causation • Variables: attributes that vary across individuals and situations, such as age,  gender and expectation. • Major goals of child­development research are to determine how these and other  variables are related to each other, both in terms of associations and in terms of  cause & effect relationships. • Correlational Designs: studies intended to indicate how variables are related to  each other. • Correlation: association b/w 2 variables. o Can be positive or negative. o Direction is positive when high (or low) values of one variable are  associated with high (or low) values of the other. 2 Child Psychology – Week 2  January 15, 2014  Ex: correlation b/w time spent reading and reading­test scores  would be positive b/c children who spend high amounts of time  reading also have high­reading test scores. o Direction is negative when high values of one are associated with low  values of the other.  Ex: correlation b/w obesity and running speed; the more obese the  child the slower they are. o Correlation Coefficient: a statistic that indicates the direction and  strength of a correlation  ­­ can range from 1.0 to ­1.0 o Strength of the relation b/w the two variables indicated by the number  within the correlation coefficient. • Correlation Does Not Equal Causation o When two variables are strongly correlated and there is a plausible cause­ effect relation b/w them, it often is tempting to infer that one causes the  other. o This inference is not justified because:  Direction­of­causation problem: a correlation doesn’t indicate  which variable is the cause and which the effect.  Third­variable problem: the correlation b/w variables may  actually be the result of some third, unspecified variable o Correlational designs are useful when describe relations among variables  rather than to identify cause­effect relations among them. Experimental Design  • A group of approaches that allow inferences about causes and effects to be drawn. • Two techniques are critical to experimental designs: random assignment or  participants and experimental control. o Random assignment: involves assigning the participants to one  experimental group or another according to chance o Experimental Control: ability of the researcher to determine the specific  experiences that children in each group encounter during the study.  Experimental group: group of children in an experimental design  who are presented the experience of interest.  Control group: group of children who are NOT presented with the  experience and instead get a placebo.  Independent variable: experience that children in the  experimental group receive and that children in the control group  do NOT receive.  Dependent Variable: behavior that is measured to determine  whether it is affected by exposure to the independent variable. • Experimental designs are used for casual relations, a central goal of scientific  research. • Are conducted mostly in lab setting, which improve experimental control but  decreases external validity. 3 Child Psychology – Week 2  January 15, 2014 Designs for Examining Development • Cross­Sectional Designs o Compares children of different ages on a given behaviour, ability, or  characteristic, with all the children being studied at roughly the same time. o Useful for revealing similarities and difference b/w older and younger  children. • Longitudinal Designs o Involving following a group of children over a substantial period of time  (2+ years) and observing changes and continuities in these children’s  development at tat time. o Longitudinal studies are useful for revealing stability and change over  time. o Cross­sectional studies are more practical b/c studying the same children  over a long period of time is difficult and time consuming and some  children may want to drop out. • Microgenetic Designs o Limitation of both and longitudinal is that they provide only a broad  outline of the process of change o Microgenetic designs: specifically designed to provide an in­depth  depiction of the processes that produce changes. o Basic idea is to recruit children who are thought to be on the verge of an  important developmental change, heighten their exposure to the type of  experience that is believed to produce the change and then intensively  study the change as it is occurring. o Counting­on strategy: counting up from the larger addend the number of  times indicated by the smaller addend. o They provide insight into the process of change into individual differences  in change processes over brief periods. Ethical Issues in Child­Development Research • Be sure research doesn’t harm the child • Obtain informed consent in writing from parents or caregiver • Preserve the participants’ anonymity • Discuss with parents or guardians any information yielded by the investigation  that important for the child’s welfare. Chapter 2: Prenatal Development and the Newborn Period 4 Child Psychology – Week 2  January 15, 2014 Prenatal Development • Aristotle believed in epigenesist – the emergence of new structures and functions  during development. Conception • A single cell resulted form the union of a sperm and an egg. (GAMETES or  GERM CELLS) • Gametes are produced through a special type of cell division in which the eggs  and sperm receive only one member from each of the 46 chromosome pairs. • In total we have 46 chromosomes, 23 from each parent. • Difference in the formation of gametes: all the eggs a woman will ever have are  formed during her own prenatal development, while men produce a vast number  of new sperm continuously. • Process starts with the launching of an egg from one of the woman’s ovaries into  the fallopian tube. • The egg moves through the tube toward the uterus and emits a chemical substance  signal that attracts sperm toward it. • If sex takes place near the time of the egg is released, conception (the egg and  sperm coming together) can occur. • In every ejaculation 500 million sperms are released. • A sperm must travel for 6 hours journeying 6­7 inches from the vagina up through  the uterus to the fallopian tube to initiate conception. • Only 200 of the sperm get near to the egg. • Failure rate may be high b/c the sperm may get tangled up with other sperm or the  fallopian tube doesn’t contain any eggs. • Fertilized egg: zygote Periods of Prenatal Development Conception – 2weeks Germinal Begins with conception and lasts until the  zygote becomes planted into the uterine wall.  Rapid cell division takes place. rd th 3  ­8  week Embryonic Major development occurs in all the organs  and systems of the body. Development takes  place through the processes of cell division,  cell migration, cell differentiation, and cell  death, as well as hormonal influences. 9  week – birth Fetal Development of physical structures and rapid  growth of the body. Increasing levels of  behaviour, sensory experience, and learning Development Processes rd th • Embryo: the name given to the developing organism from the 3  – 8  week of  prenatal development. 5 Child Psychology – Week 2  January 15, 2014 th • Fetus: name given to the developing organism from the 9  week to birth. • There are 4 major developmental processes that occur from the transformation of  a zygote into an embryo to a fetus. 1. Cell division: zygote divides into 2 equal parts within 12 hours after  fertilization. Cell keeps dividing afterwards. 2. Cell Migration: movement of newly formed cells from their point of  origin in the embryo to somewhere else. 3. Cell differentiation: stem cells (embryonic cells, which can develop into  any type of body cell) start to specialize in both terms of both structure  and function. 4. Apoptosis: selective death of certain cells is the “almost constant  companion” to the other developmental processes. • Hormones influence prenatal development as well. • In order for the fetus to develop genital, hormones are involved.  o If testerone is present, male sex organs develop o If it is absent, female sex organs develop Early Development • The zygote doubles its number of cells twice a day. • By the 4  day after conception, the cells arrange themselves into a hollow sphere  with a bulge of cells – the inner cell mass, on one side. • Identical twins originate during this stage. o They result from a splitting in half of the inner cell mass, and thus they  both have the same genetic makeup. • Fraternal twins: two eggs happen to be released from the ovary into the fallopian  tube and both are fertilized. Since they originate from 2 different eggs and 2  different sperm – fstternal twins are not alike compared to identical twins • By the end of the 1  week following fertilization, implantation occurs, the process  in which the zygote imbeds itself in the uterine lining and becomes dependent on  the mother for sustenance. • After implantation, the embedded ball of cells starts to differentiate • Inner cell mass will become the embryo and the rest of the cells will become an  elaborate support system – including amniotic sac and placenta that enables the  embryo to develop. o Inner cell mass is initially a single layer thick but during the 2  week, it  folds itself into 2 layers.  Top layer: becomes the nervous system, the nails, teeth, inner ear,  lens of the eyes, and the outer surface of the skin.  Middle Layer: becomes muscles, bones, the circulatory system,  inner layers of the skin and other internal organs.  Bottom layer: develops into the digestive system, lungs, urinary  tract and glands. o Neural tube: grooves formed in the top layer of differentiated cells in the  embryo that eventually becomes the brain and spinal cord. 6 Child Psychology – Week 2  January 15, 2014 o A key element of the support system is the amniotic sac, a membrane  filled with a clear, watery fluid in which the fetus floats.  Amniotic fluid: operates as a protective buffer for the fetus, such  as providing it with a relatively even temperature and cushioning it  against jolting o Second key element of the support system, placenta – unique organ that  permits the exchange of materials carried in the bloodstreams of the fetus  and its mother. o Blood vessels running from the placenta to the embryo and back again are  contained in the umbilical cord. o Placental membrane serves as a defensive barrier against a host of  dangerous toxins and infectious agents that can inhabit the mother’s body o Placenta produces hormones, including estrogen and progesterone. Summary of Prenatal Development • Earlier development takes place at a more rapid pace than later development and  that areas nearer the head develop earlier than those far away (head before  body)­­­ called cephalocaudal development Figure 2.6:At 4 weeks after conception, the embryo’s tiny body is curved so tightly that the head and the tail-like structure at the other end are almost touching. Several facial features have their origin in the set of four folds in the front of the embryo’s head; the face gradually emerges as a result of these tissues moving and stretching, as parts of them fuse and others separate. The round area near the top of the head is where the eye will form, and the round gray area near the back of the “neck” is the primordial inner ear. Primitive heart is visible and is already beating and circulating blood. Arm and leg bud are present. 7 Child Psychology – Week 2  January 15, 2014 Figure 2.7: (a) In this 5⁄2-week-old fetus, the nose, mouth, and palate are beginning to differentiate into separate structures Just three weeks later, the nose and mouth are almost fully formed. Cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects worldwide, involves malformations The head constitutes roughly half the length of this 9-week-old fetus, and its bulging forehead reflects the extremely rapid brain growth that has been going on for weeks. Rudimentary eyes and ears are forming. All the internal organs are present, although most must undergo further development. Sexual differentiation has started. Ribs are visible; fingers and toes have emerged, and nails are growing. The umbilical cord connecting the fetus to the placenta is shown (the fetal membranes have been pulled to the side). Spontaneous movements occur, but because the fetus is so small and is floating in amniotic fluid, these movements cannot be felt by the mother 8 Child Psychology – Week 2  January 15, 2014 The image clearly shows the heart, which has achieved its basic adult structure. You can also see the developing spine and ribs, as well as the major divisions of the brain 9 Child Psychology – Week 2  January 15, 2014 During the last 5 months of prenatal development, the growth of the lower part of the body accelerates. The fetus’s movements have increased dramatically: the chest makes breathing movements, and some reflexes—grasping, swallowing, and sucking—are present. Its mother will feel the intense kick dealt by this 16-week-old fetus, although only as a mild “flutter.” During the last 5 months of prenatal development, the growth of the lower part of the body accelerates. The fetus’s movements have increased dramatically: the chest makes breathing movements, and some reflexes—grasping, swallowing, sucking —are present. Its mother will feel the intense kick dealt by this 16-week-old fetus, although only as a mild “flutter.”Adifferent camera angle of this fetus would reveal whether it is boy or girl, as the external genitalia are substantially developed at this point. This 18-week-old fetus is clearly sucking its thumb, in much the same way it will as a newborn. The fetus is covered with very fine hair, and a greasy coating protects its skin from its long immersion in liquid. 10 Child Psychology – Week 2  January 15, 2014 By the 20th week, the fetus spends increasingly more time in a head-down position. The components of facial expressions are present—the fetus can raise its eyebrows, wrinkle its forehead, and move its mouth. As the fetus rapidly puts on weight, free space in the amniotic sac decreases and, as a consequence, so do fetalmovements. 2.13: The 28th week marks the point at which the brain and lungs are sufficiently developed that a fetus born at this time would have a chance of surviving on its
More Less

Related notes for PSY 302

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.