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Child Development Exam.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY 302
Professor
Lili Ma
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 10: Emotional Development and Temperament - Emotional Intelligence: a set of abilities that contribute to competence in the social and emotional domains Emotional Expressions Birth to 3 Months - Positive: contentment, interest, and non-social smiles - During first month they experience fleeting smiles, mostly during REM sleep - In the first weeks of life, infants’smiles are caused by internal factors, not social - Negative: generalized distress - Infants first negative emotion is generalized distress - Evoked by a variety of experiences ranging from hunger and pain to overstimulation - Expressed with cries and a scrunchy face 3-6 Months - Postive: social smiles - Social smiles are smiles directed at people and first emerge as early as 6 to 7 weeks of age - Negative: gradually become more differentiated and match situation 7-12 Months - Positive: smiles more restricted to familiar people - Negative: increased fear - Main causes include fear of strangers, separation, loud noises, sudden movements - Separation Anxiety: feelings of distress that children, especially infants, experience when they are separated, or expect to be separated from people they are emotionally attached - Tends to increase from 8 to 13 or 15 months and then begins to decline 12-24 Months - Positive: emotions increase as they are able to understand and respond to more interesting and positive events and stimuli nd - During 2 year they can clown around themselves and make others laugh - Negative: first signs of jealousy Emergence of Self-Conscious Emotions - Self-Conscious Emotions: emotions such as guilt, shame, embarrassment, and pride that relate to our sense of self and our consciousness of others’reactions to us - Two types: self-referential and sndf-evaluative - These emotions occur in the 2 year because that is when children gain the understanding that they themselves are entities distinct from other people and begin to develop a sense of self - It is also fostered by children’s growing sense of what adults and society (others) expect of them Preschool to Childhood - Cognitive and verbal ability increases -> changes in emotion expression - Emotions affected by these changes: fear and jealousy - Example: children’s cognitive ability to represent imaginary phenomena develops in preschool and they start imagining creatures such as ghosts and monsters - These fears become less common in elementary school because children develop a better understanding of reality Depression In Adolescents - Serious bouts of depression are much more common in adolescence than in childhood - Major depression is characterized by some combination of various symptoms such as depressed mood most of time, diminished interest in almost all things, feelings of worthlessness, fatigue, trouble with sleep - Typical adolescents experience a mild increase in negative emotions and or a decrease in positive emotions - Minority (15-20%) experience a major increase (clinical depression) Gender Differences In Depression - Approximately age 13 to 15, girls begin to exhibit higher rates of depression than boys and the difference is quite large - Greater stress for females - Examples: concerns about one’s body and appearance, early puberty, early maturity, concerns about peer acceptance, more likely to focus on symptoms of their distress Emotional Understanding 1 Year - 3-6 months: probably not much, differentiate but may not understand meanings - 7-12 months: now they recognize emotions, understand something about the meaning 2 Year - Most 2 year olds know the words for their basic emotions - Understand some links between events, emotions, actions - Recognize if someone feels a certain way there is a reason for it - Realize you can tell something about how people feel by the way they look Preschoolers - Inferring emotions from events, happy is easier than sad - Internal feelings vs. external expressions Elementary School - Around 8-10 years, children understand mixed feelings, both positive and negative emotions can exist at the same time toward different sources - In later years, they understand both positive and negative emotions can exist toward the SAME source Individual Differences - Although the overall development of emotions and self-regulatory capabilities is roughly similar for all children, there also are very large individual differences in children’s emotional functioning - Some children are mellow and some are more emotional, this has a basis in heredity and other factors such as parenting and placement - Self-regulation: process of initiating, inhibiting, or modulating internal feeling states and related physiological processes, cognitions, and behaviors Temperament - Children are born with different emotional characteristics - Differences in various aspects of children’s emotional reactivity that emerge early in life are labeled as dimensions of temperament - Constitutionally based: biologically based, individual differences in emotion, motor, reactivity, and self-regulation that demonstrate consistency across situations overtime - Assessment: infants are rated on activity level, attention span, persistence, approach/withdrawal, behavior, mood, etc. - There are three types of temperament: easy (40%), difficult (10%), slow-to-warm- up (15%) Temperament and Later Social Functioning - Negative, impulsive, and unregulated infants -> poor peer relations, trouble with the law, difficult partners and roommates - Behaviorally inhibited infants -> more likely to experience anxiety, depression, and phobias - Stability over time Goodness Of Fit Model - Goodness of fit: the degree to which an individual’s temperament is compatible with the demands and expectations of his or her social environment - Patient, sensitive, and yet demanding caregiving is difficult, but it is the best for difficult children - The influence is bi-directional! Chapter 11: Attachment - Attachment: an emotional bond with a specific person that is enduring across space and time Historical Underpinnings Early Theories of Attachment - Psychoanalytic Theory: Mother as “analytic” love object (feeling) - Freud, Erikson - Learning Theory: food is primary reinforcer, mother becomes secondary reinforce Maternal Deprivation - 1930s and 1940s: children raised in orphanages, refugee camps, or other institutions showed deficits in physical, cognitive, and emotional development Harlow’s Challenges Harlow & Zimmerman’s “monkey love” research: - Challenged psychoanalytic and learning theories - Their question was: What is the cause of attachment, feeding or contact comfort? Harlow’s Monkey Love Research - Baby monkeys raised in isolation from birth - When placed with other monkeys at 6 months, they had severe disturbances - Early social interactions: The roots of normal social and emotional development - Surrogate mothers: wire mother with food vs. cloth mother with contact comfort - Monkeys would feed from wire mother but quickly leave and go to the cloth mother for comfort when they were full Modern Theories of Attachment Cognitive Theory - Certain cognitive abilities are required for attachment Ethological Theory - Attachment is adaptive for infants Bowlby’s Theory - Combines psychoanalytic, cognitive, and ethological theories - Theory that children are biologically predisposed to develop attachments with caregivers as a means of increasing the chances of their own survival - The initial development of attachment takes place in 4 phases: - Preattachment (birth-6 weeks): infant produces innate signals, most notably crying, that summon caregivers, and the infant is comforted by the ensuring interaction - Attachment-in-the-making (6 weeks-8 months): infants begin to respond preferentially to familiar people, a time when infants form expectations about how their caregivers will respond to their needs and in result develop a sense of trust in them or not - Clear-cut attachment (6 to 8 months- and 1 ½ years): infants actively seek contact with their regular caregivers, may start to experience separation anxiety - Reciprocal relationships (1 ½ or 2 years on): toddlers’rapidly increasing cognitive and language abilities enable them to understand their caregivers feelings, goals, and motives and use this understanding to organize their efforts to be near them Measurement of Attachment Security in Infancy The Strange Situation Procedure - Ainsworth designed this laboratory test for assessing the security of an infant’s attachment to his or her parent - It is called the strange situation because it is conducted in a context that is unfamiliar to the child and is likely to heighten their need for their parent - Based on Bowlby’s theory - Comprised of 8 episodes involving strangers, new situations, separations, and reunions - Infants behavior is recorded (+ and -) - Determines attachment styles The Strange Situation: Episodes - Episode 1: Parent & infant are introduced to a playroom - Episode 2: They are left alone and the parent sits while infant explores - Episode 3: Stranger enters, talks with parent, approaches infant, parent leaves - Episode 4: Mother leaves infant and 1 separation occurs: stranger offers comfort st - Episode 5: Parent comes back and comforts infant and 1 reunion occurs, stranger leaves nd - Episode 6: Parent leaves again and 2 separation occurs - Episode 7: Stranger comes back and offers comfort again - Episode 8: Parent comes back and comforts infant 2 reunion occurs, engages baby with toys Attachment Styles SecureAttachment (62% to 68%) - Pattern of attachment in which infants have a high-quality, relatively unambivalent relationship with their caregiver - When a stranger enters the infant is a bit concerned - Gets upset if parent leaves - Becomes happy after reunited and comforted by parent Insecure-AvoidantAttachment (15%) - Type of insecure attachment when infants seem somewhat indifferent toward their caregiver and may even avoid them - Too independent, explores without parent - Not concerned when stranger enters - Not upset when parent leaves, not happy when reunited Insecure-Resistant Attachment (9%) - Type of insecure attachment when infants are clingy and stay close to their caregiver rather than exploring environment - Extremely wary of stranger - Very distressed when parent leaves - But, ambivalent when reunited Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment (15%) - Type of insecure attachment when infants have no consistent way of coping with the stress of the Strange Situation - Acombination of avoidant and resistant traits; associated with “high risk” home conditions Cultural Variations in Attachment Styles - Similar classifications across numerous cultures - E.g. China, Western Europe, various parts ofAfrica - In these cultures, there are securely attached, insecure/resistant, insecure/avoidant, and disorganized infants consistently - But, some important differences in certain other cultures - E.g. Japan, Germany, Israel - Notable differences in types of insecure attachment displayed in Japan, all infants were classified as insecure/resistant Influences OnAttachment and Long Term Effects Temperament Hypothesis (Kagan) - “Easy” vs. “difficult” temperaments influence the quality of the mother-infant relationship and thus the attachment style Long Term Effects - Securely attached infants: positive development outcomes (behavioral, social, cognitive) - Insecurely attached infants: negative development outcomes - “Continuity” from preschool years through adulthood Chapter 12: Family The Child in Context Brofenbrenner’s Ecological Model - Microsystem: the immediate environment that an individual personally experiences - Mesosystem: the interconnections among immediate, or microsystem, settings - Exosystem: environmental settings that a person does not directly experience but that can affect the person indirectly - Macrosystem: the larger cultural and social context within which the other systems are embedded Family AsA Social System - Family: a social system or network of reciprocal relationships - Family Structure: nuclear families, extended families, single-parent families, blended families - In all families: indirect and direct effects Parental Socialization - Socialization: the process through which children acquire the values, standards, skills, knowledge, and behaviors that are regarded as appropriate to their present and future roles in their particular culture - Parents influence socialization in 3 main ways: - Parents as direct instructors: parents may directly teach their children skills, rules, and strategies and inform or advise them on various issues - Parents as indirect socializers: parents provide indirect socialization through their own behaviors with and around their children, e.g. model actions - Parents as social managers: parents manage their children’s experiences and social lives, including their exposure to various people, activities, and information Parenting Styles - Parenting behaviors and attitudes that set the emotional climate in regard to parent-child interactions, such as parental responsiveness and demandingness - Diana Baumrind identified 2 dimensions of parenting style that are important: - Acceptance/Responsiveness: supportive, sensitive, willing to provide affection and praise - Demandingness/Control: amount of regulation and control parents undertake - Baumrind differentiated among four styles of parenting related to the dimensions of support and control - Authoritative: high in demandingness and supportiveness, set clear standards and limits and are firm about them, but can change them to attend to child’s needs - Authoritarian: high in demandingness and low in responsiveness, non- responsive to child’s needs and enforce their own demands using threats and punishment - Permissive: high in responsiveness and low in demandingness, responsive to child’s needs but do not enforce rules -
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