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PSY 213 Study Notes Test #1.docx

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PSY 411
Jian Guan

Chapter 1: Studying Adult Development and Aging Life Span Perspective: divides human development into 2 phases, an early phase (childhood and adolescence) and later phase (adulthood, middle age, old age) Early phase- characterized by rapid age related increase in people’s size and ability Later Phase- changes in size are slow, but abilities continue to develop as people adapt to the environment 4 Features of Lifespan Perspective: (Baltes) 1. Multidirectionality: development involves growth and decline in different areas at different rates (can be positive or negative) 2. Plasticity: capacity is not predetermined or concrete, learning and adaptation continues, brain never stops always finds new ways of doing things. 3. Historical Context: we develop in a particular set of circumstances determined by the historical time we were born and our culture.(surroundings of a cohort) 4. Multiple Causation: development shaped by biological, psychosocial, sociocultural an life-cycle forces  Baltes argues that there is a dynamic interaction between growth maintenance and loss regulation  there is an age-related reduction in the amount and quality of biologically based resources available as people grow older  age- related increase in the amount and quality needed to continuously generate growth  age- related decline in the efficiency with which cultural resources are used  there is a lack of old age friendly cultural resources. Forces of Development Biological and Physical: includes all genetic/health related factors that affect development (menopause, facial wrinkling, changes in organ systems) Physiological: include all internal perceptual, cognitive, emotional and personality factors that affect development Sociocultural: include interpersonal, societal, cultural and ethnic factors that affect development Life-Cycle Forces: reflect differences in how the same event or combination of bio/psych/sociocultural forces affect people at different point in their life Influences of Developmental Change Normative-Age Graded Influences: experiences caused by biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces which are highly correlated with chronological age. (Major marker events, menopause-biological, marriage- sociocultural) Normative-History Graded Influences: events that most people in a specific culture experience at the same time. (epidemics, stereotypes, attitudes) These influences give generations unique identities. Non- Normative Influences: random/rare events that may be important for a specific individual but are not experienced by all people; can be favourable or unfavourable. (winning the lottery, losing your job) Controversies In Development Nature-Nurture Controversy: the extent to which inborn, hereditary characteristics(nature) and experiential, environmental influences(nurture) determine who we are. (both influences need to be considered) Stability-Change Controversy: the degree to which people remain the same over time. (gradual or sudden changes?) Continuity/Discontinuity Controversy: concerns whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression over time (continuity) or a series of abrupt shifts (discontinuity) - continuity approaches focus on AMOUNT of characteristic - discontinuity approaches focus on KIND of characteristic Universal/Context Specific Development: whether development is the same for all individuals or is dependent on the context it occurs in. The Contextual Paradigm: adults influence and are influenced by life contexts including Person Level Factors (Biological- health and physical skills, Psychological- emotional/mental skills) Environmental Factors (Physical Environment, social/ cultural/historical environments) Definitions of Age Chronological Age: calendar age, the number of years since birth, all legal things defined this way (license, retirement, pension etc.) Generational Cohort: the decade you were born within; share the same experiences/ world events, cohort largely influenced by the technology/media we grew up with) Perceived/ Self-Perception Age: the age you think you are/feel Psychological Age: refers to the functional level of the psychological abilities people use to adapt to change to environmental demands Sociocultural Age: refers to the specific set of roles individuals adopt in relation to other members of a society. The Meaning of Age Primary Aging- normal, disease free development during adulthood (biological, psychological, sociological, lifecycle processes) Secondary Aging- developmental changes that are related to disease, lifestyle and other environmentally induced changes that are not inevitable (ex. Pollution) Tertiary Aging- the rapid loss that occurs shortly before death Healthy Successful Aging - maturity (complete growth) - strength/Skill (experience and expertise) - knowledge (wisdom) - Independence (own wealth) - Contribution to others (leadership) How do we measure Aging? Qualitative Change: abrupt and stage-like Quantitative Change: gradual/continuous Reasearch Questions 1) What changes occur with age? 2) Why does it change with age? 3) What could counteract change? Research Methods Reliability: the extent to which a measure provides a consistent index of the behavior or topic of interest Validity: the extent to which a measure measures what researchers think it measures Systematic Observation: involves watching people and carefully recording what they say or do Naturalistic Observation: people are observed as they behave spontaneously in some real-life situation Structured Observation: researcher creates a setting that is particularly likely to elicit the behavior of interest Self- Reports: people’s answers to questions about the topic of interest Case Study- in depth study of an individual (bluezones) Representative Sampling: when a group being studied is representative of the population of interest. General Designs for Research Experimental Design: involves manipulating a key factor that the researcher believes is responsible for a particular behavior and randomly assigning participants to experimental/control groups (interested in identifying differences in groups of people) Confounding: any situation in which one cannot determine which of two or more effects is responsible for the behaviors being observed. Cross Sectional Designs: developmental differences are identified by testing people of different ages at the same time (no info learned about continuity of development) - Between subjects comparison - Quick, no risk of confusing age effects with effects of society - Risk of sampling errors and cohort effects Longitudinal Designs: the same individuals are observed or tested repeatedly at different points in their life (examines continuity) - Within subjects comparison overtime - Sample people with both treatments - No risk of sampling different kinds of people, can study an individual experience of development, can study consistency - Takes a long time, subjects quit, difficult to separate effects of age from society Sequential Designs: represent different combinations of cross-sectional or longitudinal studies Sources of Bias 1) Selective attrition- differential survival, chances of people dropping out 2) Cohort Effects- groups have the same experience, knowledge, behaviours Age, Cohort and Time of Measurement Age Effects: reflect differences caused by underlying processes such as biological, psychological, or sociocultural changes (changes not always caused by passage of time) Cohort Effects: differences caused by experiences and circumstances unique to the generation to which one belongs Time of Measurement Effects: reflects differences stemming from sociocultural, environmental, historical, or other events at the time data are obtained from individuals Chapter 2: Physical Changes BIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF AGING Rate-of-Living Theories - People have only so much energy to expend in a lifetime - Ex. Bears live longer than flies because they hibernate and restore energy - Metabolic processes such as eating fewer calories and reducing stress are thought to be related to living longer - Chronic stress can cause premature aging, age-related disease prevalences Cellular Theories 1. Hayflick Limit: cells undergo a number of divisions before they end up dying. Telomeres (tips of chromosomes) cannot continue replicating because telomeres too short which limits cell division 2. Cross-Linking: in which certain proteins in human cells interact randomly and produce molecules that are linked in such a way as to make the body stiffer, has an effect on health and functioning 3. Free Radicals: proposes that aging is caused by unstable molecules called free radicals which are highly reactive chemicals produced randomly in normal metabolism (can cause cellular damage and impair functioning) Antioxidants (blueberries, pomegranates, red wine stop free radicals from developing) Programmed Cell Death Theories - Belief that cell death may lead to aging - Programmed cell death functioning appears to be a function of physiological processes, the ability of cells to self destruct and ability of dying cells to trigger key processes - Genetic pathologies include: osteoarthritis, changes in brain cells, alzheimers, memory loss, personality changes. 3 Ways of Slowing down the Aging Process 1) Delay chronic illness of old age 2) Slow fundamental process of aging to increase lifespan 3) Arrest/reverse aging by removing damage caused by metabolic processes Appearance and Mobility Skin: - Skin wrinkles: 1) skin is thinner due to cell loss 2) collagen fibers loose flexibility making skin less able to regain shape 3) elastin fibers loose ability to keep skin stretched out causing saggy skin 4) underlying layer of fat diminishes 5) skin becomes more fragile - Sun and normative changes makes skin thinner, drier, less effective in regulating heat and cold. - More susceptible to bruises, cuts, and blisters - Pigment containing cells decrease - Age spots/moles/varicose veins/ blood vessels Hair: - Gradual thinning and graying (individual and gender differences) - Hair loss caused by gradual destruction of germ centers that produce hair follicles - Greying results from a cessation of pigment production - Men do not loose facial hair, women gain facial hair (caused by hormonal changes of climacteric/menopause) Voice: - Differences in young and old voice - Old voice tends to be thinner, weaker - Lowering of pitch, increased breathlessness, less precise pronunciation, lower volume - Changes in neural and muscular control of larynx and respiratory system causes these changes (hearing also has an effect- if you can hear your self will talk louder) Body Build: - Height loss caused by compression of spine due to loss of bone strength, changes in posture muscle tone - Weight gain: 20 to mid 50s; but elderly lose weight ; men gain around abdomen, women around hips because loose bone and muscle. - Mid 50s-70s, men lose 1 inch, women lose 2 inches Changes in Mobility Muscles: - No difference in rate of muscle change between men and women - Being active is a way of counter acting loss - Age 70= 20% muscle loss, age 80= 40% muscle loss (more severe in legs) Bones: - Loss beings in late 30s, accelerates at 50 and slows in 70s - Women loose 2x as fast (no longer protected by estrogen) - Bones become more porous depending on alcohol, smoking and diet and more hollow - Increases the likelihood of fractures - Women more susceptible to osteoporosis- loss of bone mass and increased porosity create honey comb bones (leading causes of broken bones) - Caused by low bone mass, deficiencies of calcium and vitamin D, estrogen depletion, lack of weight bearing exercise - Bones break due to lack of bone density Joints: - Deterioration such as thinning and cracks - Osteoarthritis: a disease marked by gradual onset and progression of pain and disability with minor signs of inflammation (common to those whose joints are overused, wear and tear disease) - Rheumatoid Arthritis: a more destructive disease of the joints that also develops slowly and typically affects different joints and causes different types of pains Reproductive Systems: Female: - Genital organs begin to change at age 40, complete by age 50-55 - MENOPAUSE: (climacteric) is a major biological process during which women will pass from reproductive to non- reproductive (ovaries stop producing eggs) - Decreases in estrogen, progesterone, and changes in reproductive organs and sexual functioning, changes in working memory - HRT (hormone replacement therapy); provides some protection that estrogen once did Male: - No event to mark reproductive changes - Normative decline in the production of sperm, testosterone levels - Prostate gland enlarges, becomes stiffer and may obstruct urinary tract - Hot flashes, rapid heart rate, nervousness - Physiological changes in sexual performance such as less demand to ejaculate, need for longer and more stimulation and longer resolution phases Psychological Implications: - Women who are older regarded as inferior - Many use to mean to compensate changes (hairdye, cosmetics, surgery) - Loss in strength and endurance tells a person he or she is unable to adapt to environment - Changes in joints (ex. Arthritis) reduces independence and ability to complete normal daily routines. Vision Structural changes occur: 1) Decrease in the amount of light that passes through the eye, resulting in more light needed to complete tasks. ADAPTATION declines (ability to adjust light) 2) Lens becomes more yellow which causes discrimination in the green-blue-violet end of the spectrum 3) Lens ability to and focus declines Prebyopia: difficult seeing close objects clearly (time need to change focus from near to far increases) Cataracts: opaque spots that develop on the lens which limit the amount of light transmitted, risk increases with age, successful surgical treatments, blurred vision may be sensitive to light and glare) Glaucoma: fluid in the eye that fails to drain causing internal damage and even vision loss, family history risk, increases with age, eyes slowly loose nerve function, loss of peripheral vision, painless and usually not noticed Retinal Changes: Macula Degeneration: progressive and irreversible destruction of receptors which results in the inability to see details, increases with age, do not see things in the center (may not see hands on a clock, only numbers), common among caucasions, family history risk, not treatable but helps to adapt Diabetic Retinopathy: caused by early onset of diabetes; can involve fluid retention in macula, detachment of retina, hemorrhage and aneurysms. (decline in ability to see detail and acuity- ability to discriminate between patterns) Prevalence of Vision loss in Canada - 836 00 living with blindness or partial sight - 1/11 over 65 - 1/7 over 75 - Limits activity participation - Results in social isolation - Depression, anxiety, loneliness, emotional distress - Corrective Actions: glasses, lenses, surgery - Use brighter lights and larger type Hearing - Presbycusis: caused by the cumulative effects of noise and normative age related changes - Causes reduced sensitivity to high pitched noises - Men have greater loss than women - Hearing loss gradual, accelerates at 40 - Loss of hearing may cause loss of independence, social isolation, irritation, paranoia, and depression - Strains quality of interpersonal relationships - Corrective measures: analogue hearing aids, digital hearing aids, and cochlear implants help - Hearing deficiencies usually occur in cochlea, sounds are coded at different areas of the cochlea - 75% of people with hearing loss are older than 75 - Average first time hearing aid user- age 70 - 1) damage to outer ear cells (listening to ipods) - 2) cochlea damage: battery looses charge, chemical differences due to nutrients - 3) neural loss- fewer neurons firing Somathesia - Kenethesis: Sensations from skin, internal organs and joints serve critical functions - Keep us in contact with the environment, help us communicate, avoid falling and keep us safe - Loss of touch, body sensations, sexual sensitivity, changes in ability to regulate temp, pain sensitivity - We need these cues to be able to walk, participate in physical activities Balance - Balance is regulated by vestibular system in inner ear - Dizziness, light headedness, vertigo are common in older age, likelihood increases - Greater likelihood of falls due to instability - Environmental hazards include lose rugs, slippery floors - Tai Chi said to be beneficial in sustaining balance Taste - Dependent on smell - No evidence that taste changes with age - But ability to detect different tastes declines - Number of taste buds does not decrease - Changes in enjoyment of food caused by psychosocial issues (personal adjustment, changes in smell, disease such as oral health) Smell - Ability to detect smell remains intact up until 60 and then declines - Not being able to detect certain smells such as cinnamon or green apple are signs of cognitive impairment - Major concerns of the inability to smell is eating, safety and pleasurable experiences - Women wear too much perfume, because they don’t smell it as much, not as sensitive Vital Functions Cardiovascular System - Accumulation of fat deposits, stiffening of heart muscles - Results in decrease in persons ability to cope with physical exertion and aerobic exercise - By 65, 60-70 % decline - Cardiovascular disease increases with age - CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE: occurs when cardiac output and ability of heart to contract decline making heart enlarge, pressure in veins increase and body swell (most common cause of hospitalization of people over 650 - ANGINA PECTORIS: occurs when oxygen supply to the heart muscle becomes insufficient resulting in chest pain - MYOCARDIAL INFACRTION (heart attack): occurs when blood supply to heart is cut off - ATHEROCLEROSIS: age- related disease caused by build-up of fat deposits and calcification of artery walls - CVA(Cerebrovascular Accident)- when blood flow to a portion of the brain is completely cut off. (strokes, fourth leading cause of death, increases with age) - HYPERTENSION: blood pressure increases become severe Respiratory System - With increasing age, rib cage and air passages become stiffer making it harder to breathe - Lungs turn grey because of breathing in carbon particles - Amount of air that can be taken into our lungs decreases by 40% by age 85 - COPD- (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease): a family of diseases that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, 2.3 % have COPD, and by 2020 will be the third causes of death. - EMPHYSEMA: serious form of COPD, characterized by the destruction of the membranes around air sacs in the lungs, creates holds in the lungs which drastically reduces the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide The Nervous System CNS(Central Nervous System) - Changes in the brain occur mainly at the level of individual cells (neurons) - Neurons develop NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES: in which fibers in the axon become twisted together to form helical, spiral filaments, associated with behavioral abnormalities - Damages and dying neurons sometimes collect around a core of protein and produce NEURITIC PLAQUES. (characteristic of normal aging, indicative of Alzheimers.) - Changes in communication: levels of neurotransmitters affect efficiency of transmission - As we age decrease in dopamine (if extreme enough results in dopamine) - Decline in Gaba, acetylcholine linkes to Huntington’s disease) Autonomic Nervous System - Body temperature: elderly less likely to notice they are cold, slower ability to raise temperature, have difficulties regulating temperature - Difficulty falling asleep, frequent prolonged awakenings, major shifts in circadian rhythms - Have an effect on cognitive abilities (elderly better in morning, young at night) Chapter 3: Longevity, Health and Functioning Terms: Average Life Expectancy: refers to the age at which a particular cohort can expect to live Maximum Longevity: the oldest age to which any individual species lives Active Life Expectancy: living to a healthy old age independently Dependent Life Expectancy: living a long time, but not healthy or independently Environmental Factors: includes diseases, toxins, social class, lifestyle issues (smoking, exercise) which are agents in affecting longevity Genetic Factors: such as family history of diseases, health and good genes which affect longevity. Mortality: % of death Morbidity: incidence of death Ethnic Differences in Longevity - People in different ethnic groups don’t have the same life expectancy - Some at greater risk of disease - Some may have genetic advantage - Immigrant Advantage: immigrants with good health and educational status is correlated with lower morbidity and mortality Gender Differences in Longevity - Women tend to live longer, (7 year edge over males) - Women 81, Men 75 - Result due to health care, work and education opportunities and athletics Health: the absence of acute and chronic physical/mental disease and impairments Illness: the presence of a physical/mental disease or impairment - World Health Organization defines health as a complete state of well-being, physically, mentally and socially. State of opium health is called wellness. - Frankish et al. (1997 UBC) defines health as the capacity of people to adapt to, respond to or control life’s challenges and changes. Self Presentation and Stereotypes 1) Self-censorship to minimize problems 2) People present themselves as being competent members of an advantage group (young want to be older, older want to be younger) 3) We do this to gain control (youth) or regain control (elder) Stereotype threat: the risk of confirming a negative stereotype of a group with which one identifies. (ex. If you think of yourself as part of a stereotype you will perform according to that stereotype… math test example) Population Health: - The epidemiological and social condition of a community (defined by geography/common interests) that minimizes morbidity and mortality, ensures
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