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PSY295 January 25 Lec4.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 411
Professor
Jian Guan

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PSY295 January 25, 2012 1/3 MC –5 options each rest will be matching, diagram, short answer. Label structures on brain ex..... different orientation, Take particular attention when there is overlap of lecture and book. Look at casestudies, diagram, ..... Psychopharmacology -study of how drug effects the nervous system and behaviour Pyschoactive drugs -substance that acts or alter mood, thought or behaviour -mange neuropsychological illness -can produce addiction. Routes of administration -Ingestion(take the pil into your mouse and swallow, liquid..syrupts..etc) when it goes to digestive system, it will be broken down there and go to the blood stream. Some will take longer and go to intestine. This is slowest method of absorption but also one of the safest -Inhalation (smoking, nasal absoption...inhalation)  something like cocaine, This is fast since it is directly inhaled into the system thus the speed of effect is monderate to v.fast. In other words, faster it goes to the bloodstream, faster it is the effect -Peripheral(needle,..etc) – Intramuscular is slowest out of the peripheral types while intravenous is the fastest due to direct injection in the blood stream. Central – this is fast to v.fast. If you are in lots of pain, this will be a quick pain reliever. -injection in the brain will be v.fast and also require small doses due to no barrier. ex. TO check where the speech is produced, ex. Lecapesy, they make one side of the brain fall asleep. -Drugs injected into the bloodstream has v.few barriers but has to be hydrophilic. -ther are more... Drugs action in the synapse -7 places where drugs can exert their effects. ~drug can effect the generation of synthesis...? ~drug blocks the storage of neurotransmitter ~effect the releae of neurotransmitter ....make less of that neurotransmitter at the synspase ~either block of bind to it at the synapse ~effect the deactivation, can effect the enzyme, reuptake of the transmitter , Drugs can make more neurotransmitter available or less -drugs that increase the effectiveness of neurotransmitter is called the Agonist. Otherwise , the opposite is called Antagonist. Those that affect ACH -poison ex. Black widow ~agonist. Cause paralysis -Botulin Toxin ~Antagonist. Paralysis /....etc. Routs to removal of a drug -are metabolized thorgh liver....etc... Dose- response -larger doses of drugs result in larger [] in blood stream ; circulation  higher circulation means the drug is more potent and binds to more receptor -at very low doses, almost no response -high dose, reaches the equilibrium bascailly where more dose does not show higher response. - Drug potency -ED-effect dose . - Drug Efficacy -which one has the higher response diespite the doses Therapeutic index -In som cases, the barrier of ED and LD is very small suas the antideopressant drug tricylic. Thus overdose is very common Classification of psychoactive drugs -ther are 7 psychoactive drug classification 1)-sedative ---alcohol - - - 5)-things like reduce pain andcalpl...sleep 1) Sedative hypnotic and antianxiety agents -high does of this can kill you. -bartiburites  sleep, ex. You don’t like flights, eat it to sleep. Or can use it for anesthesia before surgery. Essentially, it helps to decrease anxiety. - Another ex. Is alcohol -small doses of it can help you redue risk of cardiovascular diseae and Alzheimer -however, if you drink too much, it is v. Damaging. The GABA-A  exitetaion of recptoer produce influx of Cl- which is a –ve ion thus increase the –ve charges....and hyperp
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