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PSY295 - Chapter 6.docx

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PSY 544
Clare Chua

Methods in Neuropsychology  Electrical recording: detect changes in the electrical activity of neurons  Single cell recording: measures action potentials  Electroencephalographic recording (EEG): studies sleep  One electrode is attached to the scalp, where electrical brain activity is detected, and another to the ear lobe, where there is no electrical activity to detect  Electrical signals are displayed in a polygraph o Records graded potentials (depolarization and hyperpolarization)  Event-Related Potentials (ERP): brief changes in slow-wave EEG signals due to discrete sensory stimulus  Detected by averaging EEG results, which cancels out unrelated electrical activity, leaving only the graded potentials produced by the stimulus.  Magnetoencephalogram (MEG): neural activity by generating electrical field creates magnetic field, which  Allows better precision of locating source of activity than EEG or ERP  Very expensive  Uses SQUID, in He (L)o receive signals as probes move across skull  Brain stimulation: induce changes in the electrical activity of brain; determines brain function  Intracranial Brain Stimulation: the skull must be open to introduce electrode  Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): stimulates brain w/o invasion  A small wire id placed adjacent to skull and high voltage current is passed through, which creates a rapid increase and decrease in magnetic field around coil  X-ray imaging: sensitive to the density of different parts of the brain, ventricles, nuclei, and pathways  Conventional Radiography: x-rays pass through neural tissues and bone; used for skull fractures  Pneumoencephalography: enhances radiography by removing small amount of cerebrospinal fluid and replacing it with air (x-rays don’t absorb air), which moves up the spinal cord and into the ventricles  It’s very painful due to the constriction of ventricles and loss of brain tissue  Angiography: an x-ray absorbing substance is put in blood, which allows imaging of blood vessels and can reveal any abnormalities of blood flow.  Painful and dangerous  Computerized Tomography (CT Scan): structure  pass narrow x-ray beam to take several images and combine to form a 3D image of brain  Light color=more dense regions(bone); dark colors=less dense regions (tissue)  Widely used for acute trauma and stroke  PROS o Can be used on almost anybody o Inexpensive o Quick  CONS o Involves radiation o Low spatial resolution  Dynamic imaging: record and manipulate ongoing changes in
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