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PSY654 midterm prep.docx

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Ryerson University
PSY 654
Jian Guan

INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY What is Cognition? How we learn, remember, use language, solve problems Greek Philosophy: epistemology  What do we know and how do we gain knowledge?  Rationalism – priori truths & gain knowledge thru reasoning and deduction (born)  Empiricism – posteriori truths & gain knowledge thru observation and induction (acquire)  Is not science  Wilhelm Wundt and Structuralism (1832-1920) st  1 “psychologist” – physiological psychology  Structuralism – first school of thought in psy.  Investigated the elements of thought via controlled introspection  Developed some ideas such as; experimentation, perception, attention, memory, language  William James and Functionalism (1842-1910)  Father of American psychology  Functionalism – interested in studying the purpose of thought rather than it’s elements  Concerned with prediction and control thru direct observation  Hysteria and Hypnotism: Psychoanalysis  Developed from mental health persp.  Charcot (1825-1893) use hypnosis in the treatment of hysteria led to…  FREUD and Dr.Joseph Breuer (mentor) developed a theory re: unexpressed emotions  Influences of psychoanalysis  Unconscious mind  behaviour caused by the unconscious mind  Importance of biology and society  freewill, certain abilities Behaviourism  Ivan Pavlov (1849-1939)  Groundwork for behaviourism: classical conditioning  Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) set the stage in America**  Law of Effect: when an association is followed by a “satisfying state of affairs,” the connection is strengthened  John Watson (1878-1958)  Concerned with behaviour as a series of stimuli and responses  Brain processes are unimportant (“mystery box”)  Animals as substitute the study of human behaviour (animal=human)  B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)  Operant conditioning  Shaping  Behaviour modification Is That All There Is?  E.C. Tolman (1886-1959)  Believed behaviour is not just a result of cause and effect – it’s purposeful  Learning can be latent (not reward of punishment) REFERR TO SLIDE (DIAGRAM)  Cognitive map – learning what the maze looked like  Albert Bandura (1925-  Demonstrated we don’t need to act (operate) to learn  We can learn by modeling others  We are motivated by imagining reinforcements  Noam Chomsky (1928-  Did not believe language could be simply a result of stimulus and response  Developed “generative grammar”  Introduced “universal *innate+ grammar” Computers and Artificial Intelligence  Allan Turin (1912-1954)  first proposed the Turing machine (similar to a computer program)  Goal was to carry out what the human mind can do  Newell and Simon  first to design a “non-war” computer program  Logic Theorist (1956) was the first “thinking machine” Themes in Cognitive Psychology  Mental representations  Use models to infer cognitive processes  Bottom-up va. Top-down processing  Cognitive processes built step/step or can we take short cuts  Do we use the information given or do we make assumptions  Structure vs. Function  Should we be concerned with cognitive contents or processes?  The mind is in the brain  Study how the brain works  Major concern about localized vs. distributed processing  Modular vs. General components  Do mental operations work separately or are they controlled by a general processor?  The computer metaphor  We wanted to make computers do what humans do, but now we understand computers a lot better than the mind  Information processing account vs. parallel distributed  Information is processed serially  sensory  short term  long term  Information is processed in Parallel  at the same time Studying cognitive psychology  Researchers can study behaviour and physiology  Research methods  Experiments  Self-reports  Case studies  Naturalistic observation  Computer simulations Experiments and Quasi-experiments  Exp. Req that the researcher controls as much of the environment as possible  Indep. Var. is manipulated by the experimenter  Dep. Var. is measured – it depends on the independent variable  Researchers create and test hypotheses that the IV will cause a change in the DV  Researchers try to avoid confounding variables  Use as many control variables as possible  Use representative and random samples  Many (cognitive) psyc exp. Are quasi-experimental Cognitive Neuroscience  Key themes of Anatomy  Structure vs. function  Localization vs. distributed processing  The Neuron  Myelinated neurons pass  The synapse  Info conveyed chemically at the synapse  The majority of neurotransmitters can be classified into 3 categories  Amino acids (gaba  inhibitory and glutamate  excitatory hibitory)  Monoamine (eg. DA, NE, 5-HT)  Neuropeptides  largest neurotransmitters  Neuronal communication  Stimulus intensity is represented by the firing rate or neurons  Y = how many action potentials occur at a certain time (X)  Excitatory increased number of action potential COMPARED TO SPONTANEOUS FIRING  Inhibitory decreased number of action potential  Brain Imaging  Techniques used to investigate structure:  Postmortem investigation  first way, not the most efficient  CT  3D x-ray, static image of the brain  MRI  magnetic resonance imaging causing the H atoms to align, sending a resonance radio freq causing the atoms to wiggle, releasing the energy to create an image  Techniques used to investigate function:  Single-cell recording/stimulations/lesions/TMS  EEG  measures brain in a resting state, general info abt the brain  ERP Time it takes to process a tone or picture, but does not have good spacial resolution  PET  measuring the blood flow to the brain, increased blood flow = increased activity using radio activity  fMRI  no radio activity  track hemoglobin molecules because oxygen is being transported making the hemoglobin more magnetic  MEG  measuring magnetic fields, when and where activity is being detected  These methods require comparisons with a baseline measure (subtract from the baseline)  Brain structures and function  Structure  Anatomical references  Developmental areas  Lobes/gyri/sulci  Brodmann areas  Functional divisions  The Brain  Divided into sections based on how it develops  Hindbrain  Cerebellum  balance and fine motor control, learning some tasks  Pons  send info from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain  Medulla  involuntary actions  Midbrain  Tectum “roof”  visual and auditory reflexes  Tegmentum “floor”  releases neurotrans for motor control and mood regulation, attention  Hypothalamus  hormones, flight or flight  Thalamus  regulating attention, sleep, and alertness  Forebrain: Telecephalon  Basal ganglia  voluntary motor control  Limbic system  emotions and memory (excluding hypothalamus)  Cerebral cortex  most cognition occurs here  Cerebral cortex  Folded over itself to create gyri (bumps) and sulci (grooves)  Divided into 4 lobes  Occipital, temporal, frontal, parietal (FUNCTIONS)  Brodmann areas  based on cellular architecture various brain regions (based on the way the cells look)  Functional divisions  Cortex divided into primary (first place to get input from eyes) , secondary, sensory areas, motor areas, and association areas (none of the above, more complex processing)  Brain functions  A module receives input from other brain areas but functions independently  Modularity for physical structures (anatomical) and for processes (functional)  Anatomical  different areas  Function  talks about the brain. Is this process modular. One process that does not influence the other process. 2 different functions LEVEL COMPARISON EXAMPLE Mind Functional module vs. general Language is independent of process memory vs. memory aids language processing Brain Anatomical module/localization Speech production located in vs. distributed processing broca’s area vs speech production requires multiple brain areas Cells Specificity coding vs. distribute“dog” activates one cell vs. coding “dog” results in a pattern of activity across many cells Perception  Key themes  Bottom-up vs. top-down processing  Bottom-up (data driven)  recognize patterns by analyzing sensory input  TEMPLATE THEORY: mental “stencil” for an array of different pattern not efficient because we would need millions of templates  FEATURE MATCHING THEORIES: analyzing each distinct feature of a visual item  Pandemonium model : only need to store a small amount of features  Physiological evidence from discovery of feature detector neurons in primary visual cortex  Biederman’s Recognition by Components (RBC)  Geon are view-point invariant  only works if we recognized these geons from any view or angle and still recognize them because they have non accidental properties (features of these geons that really belong to the geons)  Object recognition depends on being an accidental view point, cannot see the geons  PROBLEMS  Some objects cannot be decomposed into geons  Can’t explain how we differentiate items within the same category  Arguments against bottom-up  Analyzing each feature takes too long  Not all objects are broken down into distinct features  Patterns recognition can depend on physical and semantic regularities in the environment  Physical regularities  Use knowledge about physical properties of the world to perceive 3D objects from 2D images (the effect of light on depth)  Semantic regularities  Past knowledge and context influence the way you see an object ex. IS vs. 15  Top-down (conceptually driven)  influenced by prior knowledge, memories, and experiences  Physiological evidence for top-down influences cells that respond to certain lines  Development of more cells that correspond to their environment cells that respond to certain lines (habitual to their env.) increasing amount of feature detectors for horizontal and vertical lines vs. oblique lines  Localized vs distributed processing  There are 2 anatomical pathways for object recognition Occipital lope  goes to 2 pathways  Parietal lope “where” vs. Temporal lope “what”  REFER TO LOCALIZATION OF FUNCTION DEFICITS FROM SLIDE  Localization of function  Areas of activation for perception of faces, places, and objects  Analytic vs. holistic processing  Recognize objects either by looking at their parts or by taking it all in at once?  Recognizing part of houses is easier that recognizing parts of pages  Face processing is Configural  When configuration becomes increasingly different or abnormal the erro
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