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PSY 654
Benjamin Dyson

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Cognitive PsychTest Two ReviewCognitive PsychologyLecture FiveShorttern Memory Definitions Memory the processes involved in retaining retrieving and using information about stimuli images events ideas and skills after the original information is no longer present False memory generated an item that was not actually present Why oBecause the person presented with the list of similar words which in turn creates a sort of associative networkModal Model 3 types of memorysensory memory shortterm memory and longterm memory Sensory memory holds all information for a fraction of a second Shotterm memory STM hold about 57 items for about 1530 secondsoNot very longRehearsal helps keep the information circulating in shortterm memoryLongterm memory LTM holds incredibly large amounts of information for incredibly long period of time and possibly indefinitely Output is from the shortterm memory alone or from longterm information placed in shortterm memory Why cant we remember the list of numbers As we were remembering the numbers Our input was being overloaded by the videoThe site of the rehearsal capacity isnt very large Also couldnt remember because there was new information coming in Clive Wearing CaseConversion of short term memory to long term memory system is damaged He is able to pull some information out of LTM some of the time ie seeing his wife playing the pianoSTM is volatile because it is constantly being overwrittenoBottleneck memoryWhy did you recall critical lure words Because we relate it to schemas and scripts in memory We have thoughts about the way the world or list of words should be When we reconstruct a memory we reconstruct it in a way that fits with our view of the worldSensory Memory body memoryBoth visual sensory memory iconic memory about 15 seconds and auditory sensory memory echoic memory about 25 seconds have massive reception capabilities but incredibly short retention periods due to constant updating In addition to the major senses the minor senses smell taste touch also allow for the fleeting retention of unprocessed raw informationoThe act of attention within any one of these modalities allows certain information to enter into the STM On the basis of the whole report data left siders4512 we might conclude participants see about one third of the display oNot true oThe partial report data right siders 334 shows that we see the display experience decay during retrieval The rdpartial report with delay 3 groupdata confirm an additional decay over time during encoding Shortterm Memory Over a number of trials of different retention length information was seen to decay over time oSo memory traces in STM decay over timeoNot quite performance differences between 3 and 18 seconds at the first trial was marginal but later on the difference was marked oOld information getting in the way of new informationThis is proactive interferenceWhere does it all go Interference Information can interfere with one another if it is learnt over the same short time period and if it is similar in nature Retroactive interferenceNew information getting in the way of old information Proactive interferenceold information getting in the way of new informationSize and Coding The size of short term memory has had a number attributed to it o7 plus or minus twooPeople generally remember 59 digits or units after that STM goes to shit Controversy surrounds this number as well as how the unit of STM should be best describedoChunking or grouping grouping information together seems to be a way of increasing the amount of information that can be placed within a STM unitHowever the chunks have to be meaningful Chase and Simon oFound that expert chess players could remember significantly more board configurations than novices Only when the composition was lawful meaning that it had to make sense if it didnt this wouldnt work only at sensory memory is there anything like raw unprocessed sensory material From this stage on we play a major role in memory Pictures to words is RorschachWords to sounds is luraime Why is this
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