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Probability(CRIB SHEET).doc

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Quantitative Methods
QMS 102
Clare Chua

QUALITATIVE DATANOMINAL No ordering of the itemsORDINAL are categorical data where there is a logical ordering to the categories The simplest ordinal scale is a rankingINTERVAL0 is only an arbitrary reference point 0 does not mean nothing The interval scale of measurement only permits mathematical operations of addition and subtractionRATIO0 does mean the absence of the characteristic being measured 0nothingRatio of division data values is meaningfulRules and ConventionsStems1 Should be from 6 to 13 stems2 Should be consecutive numbers or repeatednumbers The numbers may each be repeated twice or 5 times3 Units must be indicated if stem not be taken at face value4 There must be at least one leaf associated with the first and the last stemLeaves1 The leaf for each data value is the next single digit after the stemNote When the stems are repeated twice the leaves 04 go with the first stem and the leaves 59 with the second This order is reversed when the stems are negative valuesWhen the stems are repeated 5 times the leaves 01 go with the first stem 23 with the second etc This order is reversed when the stems are negative values2 There is no rounding off3 They are written in ascending order4 They must be evenly spaced5 No commas or dashes between the numbers are allowedWhat is a Frequency DistributionA Frequency Distribution is a summary table in which the data are grouped into nonoverlapping classesFrequency DistributionStep 1 CWHL divided by 5CW28020 divided by 560Step 2 Find a nice number 1 2 25 5 10 20 25 50 etcStep 3 Construct classes and make sure it is between 5 and 10
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