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Ryerson University
Quantitative Methods
QMS 102
Clare Chua

NOMINAL No ordering of the itemsORDINAL are categorical data where there is a logical ordering to the categoriesThe simplest ordinal scale is a rankingINTERVAL0 is only an arbitrary reference point 0 does not mean nothing The interval scale of measurement only permits mathematical operations of addition and subtractionCHECK TO SEE IF 0 does mean the absence of the characteristic being measured ie 0nothing CHECK TO SEE IF AdditionSubtract data values and get meaningful resultsRATIO0 does mean the absence of the characteristic being measured 0nothingRatio of division data values is meaningful AdditionSubtract data values and get meaningful results0 does mean the absence of the characteristic being measured 0nothing OGIVEStems1 Should be from 6 to 13 stemsMeasure of Position2 Should be consecutive numbers or repeatedPercentilenumbers The numbers may each be repeated twice or 5 times3 Units must be indicated if stem not be taken at face valueThe percentile symbol is Pkkth percentile4 There must be at least one leaf associated with the first and the last stemThe kth percentile in a data set is the value such that at most k of Leavesthe data is lower than the value and at most 100k of the data is 1 The leaf for each data value is the next single digit after the stemhigher than the value2 There is no rounding offFor example the 32th percentile is the value3 They are written in ascending orderor score below which 32 percent of the4 They must be evenly spacedobservations may be found5 No commas or dashes between the numbers are allowedFrequency DistributionRelative FrequencyP3232th percentileStep 1 CWHL divided by 5Example 1CW28020 divided by 560The following data represents the ages in years of 20 employees Step 2 Find a nice number 1 2 25 5 10 20 25 50 etcworking at a retail outlet The data has already been arranged in an Step 3 Construct classes and make sure it is between 5 and 10 ascending data array18 18 18 20 20 20 20 21 22 22 24 25 28 29 29 38 40 45 52 63a Determine the 80th percentile25th percentileP25Q1first quartile50th percentileP50Q2Second quartilethe median75th percentileP75Q3Third quartileMEAN sum of all datanumber of data averageMEDIAN middle of a data set when sorted in ascending orderMODE the most frequent number that is occurring within the data set
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