Chapter 1 - Hiring Good People
- A job description should be the first task in the hiring process
- Task Analysis: lists the worker’s responsibilities , along with each task that is performed as
part of a particular job - the purpose of the task, how its done, and what skills and equipment
are needed to do it. It leads to decisions about the amounts of education and experience
required for the position.
- the personal characteristics of the applicant indicates how they will approach the job, what
kind of attitude and demeanor the applicant has, and how well they are able to work with other
- Personal characteristic involve the person’s level of creativity, interpersonal skills,
communication styles, decision making styles, ability to work under pressure, careers goals or
motivation level, energy level, and his or her overall attitude.
Employees are categorized :
- Careerists: people who enjoy the industry and want to remain in it.
-Undecided: people who avoid the typical career issues by choosing to have a series of jobs
rather than a career per se
-pass-throughs: people who have career goals in other occupations but are working in food
service pr retail temporarily
-the misplaced: those who are not well suited to the industry but to remain in it nonetheless
- A career summary or introductory statement make it clear what type of position the person is
seeking and why he or she is qualified.
-keywords a computerized screening system is likely to recognize in written phrases in the
written job description
- some companies prefer to do initial interviews through the phone. this first step is another
screening tool that helps to determine the candidate’s suitability for the job and his or her ability
Types of job interviews:
1- Structured: every candidate is asked the same set of questions
2. Unstructured: formed more like a conversation with each candidates responses 2
3. Combination: both!
typical time for an interview is 30 - 60 minutes
Use two documents : the job description and the person’s resume or application as basis for
What not to ask / Avoid asking:
age, marital status, race ethnicity, ancestry, religious affiliations, child care arrangements,
political affiliations, educaiton, alchol usage, physical or mental disabilities.
The follow up interview - a few candidates who make the final cut return for the follow up
interview that should focus less on specific experience and more on behavioural topics, that is,
how candidates handle stress, success and failure what their work ethic is.
Background checks - criminal, financial and legal background check ups.
Fair Credit Reporting Act (FRCA) - third party companies that do background checks for
1. Define Needs
2. Job Descriptions – employee or manager
3. Access Multiple Channels – referrals
4. Prepare for Interview – sample questions
5. Select the Right Candidate
Chapter 3 - Managing People Effectively
-Accountability can help provide focus, communicate priorities, indicate serious commitment to
an issue, create a sense of urgency and indicate serious commitment to an issue, create a
sense of urgency and tension, and demonstrate to all those in the organization that its leaders
are evenhanded and fair.
-people who live with the consequences of their decisions tend to make better ones.
- the legendary basketball coach advised "don't measure yourself by whatnot have
accomplished, but by what you should have accomplished with your ability"
There ar three questions a manager should act before assigning accountability :
1. What must be done? Before people can be accountable they must understand what
they are being held accountable for - and they shouldn't be held accountable for tasks 3
not worth performing, every task for which am individual is to be held accountable must
be examined to ensure that it adds value.
2. Who will be held accountable?
3. What abilities will those. Will those being held accountable need to have
Shifting Balance of Power
-most organizations work for the assumption that management knows best -that
managers ought to have control until a convincing argument can be made to the contrary
- centralize authority : move authority further up the hierarchy , assuming there is one,
he or she will have to convince the organization that this would lead to a preferable
outcome. (page 42)
- giving people the type of knee knocking accountability that puts them at risk - the way
the business’ owners are at risk - is an effective alternative to a system that boasts
empowerment but often delivers a great deal less.
Cooperation vs. Competition
- today ‘s world is too complex for any one person to create value in her workplace herself. This
is true for companies in which individuals from different functional areas, departments and
physical locations have to work in harmony to meet the unique needs of their customers.
- Most companies are least equipped with cooperation and teamwork. we are simply not
prepared to cooperate culturally, structurally, or philosophically.
The Hidden Costs of Competition
people frequently act on their noble instincts and help one another, indeed it is nothing less than
amazing that, given the systematic promotion of competition and the resistance to cooperation
there is much pulling together as there is.
The potential downside risk to indecent and uncooperative behaviour :
1. internal competition squashes creativity and innovation
2. internal competition inhibits dialogue
3. internal competition can negatively impact relationships
4. internal competition lowers product and service quality
5. internal competition destroys focus : winning and process or product improvement
are very different goals. when people compete with a focus on winning, they often take
the fastest, most reliable, most predictable route to winning - which is rarely most
6. internal competitiveness reduces efficiency : when individuals are less innovative ,
less trusting or more combative, it costs the company in a variety of ways.
7. Internal competition de-motivates those who don't win: the theory was that if
people competed and the winners were rewarded they would feel appreciated and all
those who didn't win would strive to do so in the future. in most cases it hasn't worked
out that way.
8. Internal competition lessen self esteem : when some people lose, they begin to
question their ability to succeed in this (And maybe any other) system. they worked hard
and did their best and cut short.
Building Cooperation (page 46)
- Increase the interaction between individuals and groups
- ensure that everyone has the opportunity to win
- establish cooperation and respect as core values
- educate everyone about the entire process
- a focus on short term results often leads to a less cooperative environment
- if part of everyones evaluation included and analysis of what a person or group has
done to further teamwork, most organizations would be different
- involve everyone in at least one cross-functional improvement effort -
- consider teams as the primary unit of responsibility
an important caveat: some organizations have begun to organize in teams, many have been
unwilling to abandon the old structure completely, keeping team members accountable as
individuals to their former functional department. the result is usually a group that does not
function as a team but as individuals representing areas of expertise , each with veto power
over most decisions, frustration levels tend to be high as people are torn between functional
responsibilities and group commitments.
The workplace ‘case systems’
in many organizations a large number of employees are given the not so subtle message that
they should ‘know their place’.
- command control business structures, different treatment of different classes of employees
was at the heart of maintaining order in the hierarchy. The costly by- product of these practices
has been reduced flexibility, less learning and an increased feeling of helplessness among
certain groups. 5
- class distinction tend to create bureaucracy, lessen self esteem, and lead to a feeling in which
many individuals that they have little control over the systems in which they work.
- downsizing and flattening organizational hierarchies might help cut down on the negative
effects of class distinctions, but if companies don't change the structures that created the
problems initially it won't be long before a similar class system emerges.
Chapter 4 - Managing Union Employees
- Today ~31% of Canadian employees unionized or are covered by a collective agreement or
• Larger role provincial and federal government in labour laws, diversity, & human rights
• Recent economic and market fluctuations have impacted ability to unionize
History of labour unions:
- before the industrial revolution (1740 - 1830) associations of skilled workers were known as
‘craftsmen guilds’ that set up professional standards and apprenticeship systems for their
- during the decades of the industrial revolution, English craftsmen guilds evolved into unions
with which we are familiar today. workers organized to protect their members from abuse,
overwork, poor pay at the hands of industrialists who viewed their workers as another piece of
- the united steelworkers of america started organizing in 1936 and within six years grew
enormously with more than 700,000 members in the us and canada.
-Historically, employers that have resisted unionization of their workforces have done so for two
1- it interferes with management ability to run the company as its owners see fit.
2- it introduces an ‘outsider’ element to the employer -employee relationship and can
divide workers loyalties between company and union.
- when a company is unionized, it must subscribe to union dictated work rules, pay scales, job
protection procedures and other union policies that often affect its business processed to the
point that costs increase and profits decrease.
- employers also prefer straightforward manager to employee communication; they don't like
basic union feature of the union shop steward, the on site employee who serves as the union
representative and may become involved in even the most minor disputes or misunderstandings
between manager and other employees. 6
Types of Unions
1- Craft Unions
were the foundation organizations of the union movements. like guildas before them, they focus
on workers with similar skills doing similar jobs, and generally include apprenticeship programs
among their functions. Actors, boilermakers, carpenters, electricians, ironworkers, machinist,
plumbers, railway engineers and stone workers are among the skill sets represented by craft
unions. craft unions exert their power through the ability to control the labor supply of a given
craft. they are the strongest at the local level.
2. Industrial Unions:
Are association made up of all workers in a single industry . These workers perform different
jobs requiring different skills and skill levels, including many that are represented by craft
unions. auto workers, mine workers, steel workers and textile workers are among the industries
represented. They exert their force primarily through the ability to control the labor supply of a
given industry. they are the strongest on national level.
Uptill 1955 craft unions belonged to the american federation of labour and industrial unions were
organized into congress of industrial organizations. they merged in that year to form the
american federation of labor congress of industrial organizations, better known today by its
acronym AFL-CIO (represents 58 separate unions).
- Unite Here: 450,000 workers in apparel and textile manufacturing, apparel distribution centres,
apparel retail industries, laundries, hotel, casinos, food service, airport concessions and
restaurants. (page 56) 2004 merger. examples - Aramark, brooks brothers, ceaser’s
entertainment, harrah;s entertainment, hilton, hyatt, walt disney, levi strauss, liz claiborn , Xerox
- Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) : represents several thousands of sand