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SSH Test Review 3.docx

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Ryerson University
Social Sciences and Humanities
SSH 105
Klaas Kraay

Relevance - Premise is irrelevant to a conclusion if & ONLY IF its truth counts for nor against the conclusion, otherwise it is relevant Genetic Fallacy - Arguing or assuming that a claim is true or false because of its origin Fallacy of Composition - Arguing or assuming that what is true of the parts must be true of the whole - Ex: Every player on the Blue Jays is the best in the league…therefore Blue Jays are the best in the league Fallacy of Division - Arguing or assuming that what is true of the whole must be equally true of the parts - Example: Jane is a human being…therefore every cell in her body is a human being Fallacy of Appeal to the Person - Arguing that we should reject a claim SOLELY because of the person who made it Ad Hominem Fallacy - Character: attack persons character instead of providing evidence for conclusion - Circumstances: points out persons circumstances instead of providing evidence for conclusion Tu Quoqe - Points out some claim is inconsistent with speaker says, instead of providing conclusion Faulty Reasoning Reasons for Belief & Doubt 1. When claims conflict 2. Experts & evidence 3. Personal experience 4. Fooling ourselves If we care that our beliefs are true or reliable, we must care about the reasons for accepting the beliefs Claims Conflict - When 2 claims conflict, both cannot be true - If new claim conflicts with other claims we have good reasons to accept, we have good grounds for doubting the new claim Conflict with Background Information - Rather than 2 conflicting claims o We see a conflict between a claim & your background information - Examples: Background information includes o Facts about everyday things  “The Sky is Blue” - Beliefs based on good evidence: o “Cigarettes aren’t good for you” - Justified Claims aka common sense-knowledge o “If you study then you will do better on the quiz” - More background information the claim conflicts with o More reasons we have to doubt it - Common sense isn’t ALWAYS RIGHT! Belief & Evidence - Our degree of belief
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