Critical Thinking Chapter 3 Notes.docx

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Ryerson University
Social Sciences and Humanities
SSH 105
Joseph Zboralski

Critical Thinking Chapter 3 Notes Conditional statement is a statement of the form:  If P... then Q Conditionals are compound statements composed of two parts: Antecedent – what follows the word “if” Consequent – what follows the word “then” Necessary Conditions:  A is necessary for B. Without A, B would not be true Sufficient Conditions:  A is a sufficient condition for B. If A is true, then B is true  Ex. If John is a bachelor, then John is unmarried. "then John is unmarried" - is a Consequent, necessary condition "John is a bachelor" - is a Antecedent, sufficient condition Therefore: Conditional Statement 1. Antecedent expresses a sufficient condition 2. Consequent expresses a necessary condition Valid Conditional Arguments: 1. Affirming the Antecedent (Modus Tollens)  If P, then Q P Therefore, Q  Must be Valid. (true premises = true conclusion)  Ex. (1) If a shape is a square, then it has four sides (2) The shape is a square Therefore, (3) It has four sides 2. Denying the Consequent  If P, then Q Not Q Therefore, not P  Must be Valid (true premises = true conclusion)  Ex. (1) If a shape is a square, then it has four sides (2) The shape is not have four sides ___________________________________ Therefore, (3) It is not a square 3. Hypothetical Syllogism (Chain Argument)  If P, then Q If Q, then R Therefore, if P, then R  Must be Valid (true premises = true conclusion)  Syllogism- an argument made up of three statements (two premises, one conclusion) Not Valid Conditional A
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