SSH 105 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Modus Ponens, Deductive Reasoning, Logical Reasoning

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SSH 105
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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SSH 105
Week one
Statement: an assertion that something is or is not the case.
Proposition: specific thought or idea the statement expresses. Different statements can express
the same proposition. The same words can also express different propositions.
Premise: a statement that is offered in support of a conclusion. States reasons for accepting
conclusions.
Conclusion: a statement that is held to be supported by one or more premises. The conclusion is
what the speaker wants you to accept/believe.
Argument: a set of statements in which some (the premises) are intended to support another (the
conclusion)
Inference: process of reasoning from a premise to a conclusion based on those premises.
Inferences will be identified and we will learn to detect common patterns of reasoning.
Inferences will be evaluated and we will learn to distinguish good ones from bad ones.
Steps of argument analysis
0. Figure out if its an argument
1. Reconstruct the argument
2. Evaluate the argument
Step 0:
Not all texts are arguments. Some texts are descriptive. Some are opinions without giving
reasons. Both of these are not arguments.
An if then statement by itself, is not an argument. Ex if it is raining then I will get wet.
No reasons are offered. Explanations by themselves are not arguments they just tell us
why something is the case.
Step 1:
arguments are not presented in the clearest way. We’ll identify and display the underlying
biological structure of an argument.
Step 2:
This isn’t evaluating literary merit/rhetorical power. An argument has rhetorical power
when it persuades people. We will evaluate rational strength of arguments. An argument
has rational strength when the premise provides good reasons to think the conclusion is
true.
Critical thinking:
systematic analysis/formulation of arguments by rational standards. Its systematic
because it involves distinct procedures/technical methods that aren’t gut feelings. It’s
used to analyse existing arguments and to formulate new ones. It evaluates arguments in
terms of how well their premise is.
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Week One Tutorial
Jenny Duffy
Section 11
Office hours Mondays 12-1 in Jor 440
Statement: an assertion that something is or is not the case.
Proposition: the specific thought or idea the statement expresses
Premise: a statement offered that supports the conclusion
Conclusion: a statement that is held to be supported by one or more premises
Argument: a set of statements, one of which is taken to be supported by the others
Inference: process of reasoning from a premise, or premises, to a conclusion, based on
those premises
Week One Notes
Week Two
Different uses of the term knowledge
Knowledge by acquaintance
Knowledge-how
Propositional knowledge (knowledge that). Some people have conflict in propositional
knowledge such as the concept of God existing or not.
Declarative sentences express propositions unlike imperative or interrogative sentences.
3 key things to propositional knowledge
Belief
Truth (some things can be true but not known. Some things can be unjustified).
Justification. There is a difference between an objective and subjective truth.
Realism (about truth in some subject area)
2 claims:
There are truths in a specific subject area
These truths can be objective. For example, there is a correct answer of how many
jellybeans there are in a jar. And this answer doesn’t depend on anyone’s beliefs.
Nihilism (about truth in some subject area)
There are no truths whatsoever in that subject area. For example, Nihilism works with
morals and art.
Nihilism is implausible in many subject areas. Nihilism about everything is self-
defeating. They believe there is no truth, but that is there truth.
Relativism (about truth in some subject area)
Are truths in that subject area
What the truths are depends upon what we believe them to be and are subjective
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Document Summary

Statement: an assertion that something is or is not the case. Proposition: specific thought or idea the statement expresses. The same words can also express different propositions. Premise: a statement that is offered in support of a conclusion. Conclusion: a statement that is held to be supported by one or more premises. The conclusion is what the speaker wants you to accept/believe. Argument: a set of statements in which some (the premises) are intended to support another (the conclusion) Inference: process of reasoning from a premise to a conclusion based on those premises. Inferences will be identified and we will learn to detect common patterns of reasoning. Inferences will be evaluated and we will learn to distinguish good ones from bad ones. Steps of argument analysis: figure out if its an argument, reconstruct the argument, evaluate the argument. Step 0: not all texts are arguments.

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