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Ryerson University
Social Sciences and Humanities
SSH 105
Klaas Kraay

George Nico Critical Thinking (Notes) 10/05/12 CH 3: Making Sense of Arguments Missing /Implicit/Unstated/Suppressed Premises - Arguments with Missing Premises: o “If tuition fees continue to rise, I won’t be able to afford to go to school. I’m telling you: school will soon be unaffordable.” - Arguments with a Missing Conclusion o “If atheism were true, there would be on such thing as objective right and wrong. But morality is objective.” - Missing Premise and Conclusion: o “Murder Clyde? I was in jail when he was killed!” ** Remember: always follow the Principle of Charity. ** A three-step procedure for finding implicit premises: 1. Search for a credible premise that would make the argument deductively valid. Try to find a premise that a. Is plausible, and b. Best fits with the author’s intent (Principle of Charity) If you cannot think of one, proceed to the next step. 2. Search for a credible premise that would make the argument inductively strong. If you cannot find one, then reject the argument 3. If you were able to reconstitute the argument in Steps 1 or 2, then evacuate it: determine whether it is sound or cogent. *** Check the method for classifying and evaluating arguments in the textbook *** Step 0: Determine whether the passage contains an argument. Deductive Argument Patterns - There are some
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