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[SWP 335] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (38 pages long)

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Social Work
Course Code
SWP 335

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Ryerson SWP 335 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE find more resources at Thursday, September 15, 2016 Power, Resistance & Change Power : The possibilities and the dangers … “The Possibilities” of power • Real change can happen from power • It can bring Unity • Positive Influence • Ability to redistribute power • Effective collaboration • Leadership • Raise Awareness “The Dangers” of power • Manipulation Coercions • • Groups singled out • Laws • It can cause separation • Mass fear • Genocide • Domination & Control Micheal Foucault “Power must be analyzed as something that circulates , or rather as something which only functions in the form of a chain. It is never localized here or there, never in anybody hands, never appropriated as a commodity or piece of wealth” Modernism • Universal Truths - Problem with universal truths is that they don't allow for multiple perspectives, and alienates people . However there are some universal truths such as : everyone should have access to clean water. • Scientific - We need to be able to prove - Can also be damaging , such as scientific racism • Objective • Measurable - Part of why social work is critiqued is because its success is not measurable but social workers have arguments to fight this. For example : as a social worker, if I take a kid from a home of abuse to a good family I consider this to be successful. - However, success is subjective • Fixed Categories - Problematic - if we put people into fixed categories then there is no room for fluidity. • Concepts of power seen as possessed, a commodity, occurs within binaries ▯1 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, September 15, 2016 Article : Fook. (2012). Chapter 4. Power Fook, J.. (2003). Social work, Critical theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. (pp. 45-55). Case Scenario : group of divorces men who are in the process of custody agreements. One of the members - Theo - has a problem with women in positions of power. The group of men decide to talk to a local politician about the rights of men & custody. They joined with another group in order to form a stronger fight. Charles - another group member - wants to speak to the politician alone because he has a mutual friend and aspires to be a politician as well, however, the group does not trust Charles as they think his main goal is with his other political interests. Theo and Charles fight about how to approach the politician. The group also has doubts about Theo as the politician is a woman. • Where does power lie? - It can be argued that the power lies with the politician as she is the one who can create change on a political level - Power is in numbers as the two groups form together - Power of personal connections ex. Charles - Power in relation to gender ex. Theo over the politician according to his views • Power is structural - We have certain laws and regulations that keep power in place that make people feel powerful/powerless - Ex. did this case imply that divorced fathers do not have power on their own for custody? • Different Sources of power - everyones has multiple standpoints of power. For example : being a political is a powerful group, but being a woman identifies as powerless. The men are in a structurally powerful group, but powerless in relation to being divorced fathers fighting for their custody rights. • Awareness of types and sources of power might help in working to empower the players concerned • Matter of identifying the powerless groups of people and ensuring that they have power to carry out their mission Criticisms of the Empowerment Model • Some approaches do not mention the concept of power (Furlong, 1987) • People do not easily fit into ‘powerful’ or ‘powerless’ groupings - sometimes fit into both at the same time - For example : I can feel powerful because I am in university and receiving an education, but can be powerless as I am a women which is the oppressed when compared to men. • Relationship between self-help and empowerment, still need social justice perspective (oppression) or there will not be guidelines about who needs empowering and to what extent. • What may be empowering to some may be disempowering for others Problems in conceptions of power and empowerment Five major modernist conceptions of power 1. Power as a Commodity : material entity which can be transferred from one group to another or given away. •This is problematic because empowerment is always at the expense of one group/ person to another. For example : if the politician empowers Theo, she disempowers herself •Commodified notion of power : only infinite amount of power therefore, only one group can be empowered ▯2 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, September 15, 2016 • Implied that we decided empowerment goes to most disadvantaged, oppressed or marginal group 2. Binary Oppositional Relations : splits world into the ‘powerful’ and ‘powerless’ and the assumption that they are two mutually exclusive groups Ones identity as powerless can have disempowering effect as the ‘powerful’ might • seem unachievable • Identity ascribed from the outside from those more powerful • Focus away from problematic social practices and structures 3. Allowance for Difference: (modernist) empowerment is about reducing inequality, BUT what equality is, is often unclear • Assumes that equality = sameness and therefore the goal is for everyone to be on this mainstream dominant views of ‘same’ • Problem with this is that it leaves little room for personal choice and social difference • Experience of being the same might be disempowering because of difference in social locations causing us each to have our own goals, culture, etc • Sameness silences other perspectives and heads toward this mainstream idea of the norm = disempowering those who are not in the dominant group 4. Accounting for Contradictions : some conceptualizations of power are inadequate for accounting for contradictions • Complexity of oppression - people may adhere themselves to “self defeating” routes that do not work to their bests interests because choices are not presented in a meaningful way to them • Another complexity is that the idea presented is part of someone else discourse i.e. feminist movement - started with middle class white women, so a women who doesn't fit that disruption might go against the feminist movement because it is not reflective of their experiences. • What you may see as self defeating for yourself may not be self defeating for others 5. Disempowering experience of empowerment The experience of being given power can have an disempowering effect. I.e. • sometimes people try to ‘help’ us and it only patronizes or demotivates you. • Labels and categories are potentially dehumanizing and discriminating in relation to defining and relating to ‘disempowered’ groupings as a fixed positioning • Problem for those trying to empower is how to exercise power without creating contrary circumstances • Critical notion of power and empowerment - need to construct ideas which allow for difference and diversity of experience and perspective and flexibility is a way power experienced and communicated Reformulating the concept of Power • Foucault’s understanding of power - power is exercised and experienced • Power is exercised, not possessed - something people use and create Power is both repressive and productive (power is everywhere, at every stage not just top • down and given through processes and social interactions) • Power comes from the bottom up - encourages looking at how power is expressed in the richness of everyday situations/relations • Both less and more powerful people can work together to create a situation in which all experience empowerment • Power is everywhere — importance of how it is used, in different settings and different people ▯3 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, September 15, 2016 • Different contexts may influence the types of power, how it is practised and exercised (Healy, 2000:43) • Power involves potential to control, restrict and to form and transform Empowerment practice - critical and post modern prospect 1. Analyze/reflect situations focusing on how existing power relations and structures are created and supported - deconstruct 2. Redefine and reconceptualize the power relations and structures in non-oppositional terms allowing for differences between different players 3. Negotiate a changed system of power relations and structure which is experienced as empowering 4. Reconstruct and reconceptualize the situation in ways that are more empowering for all parties Power • Two types of power - Political : ( make or shape policies) - Relationship power (power to influence how people relate to each other) • “Power With” vs. “Power Over” What is Power? • In the sense of community change - power is the capacity to help move people in certain direction • There are various definitions but all lead that power is something that is possessed and used and involved a sense of purpose in which we fill a need or some benefit by using. • Collaboration - a number of people who have power and work together to accomplish their objectives. Moving in a desired direction in cooperation (“Power With”). • Dominance - manner in which people and institutions exercise power over others (“Power Over”) • Power can sometimes imply resistance and requires a struggle. However, this can be the only way we understand power and it becomes negative as it is seen as people being forced to do something by someone who can make them do it. We need to limit “power over”. • Power can be used in a spirit of cooperation as easily as it can occur in a climate of conflict. Power is neither good/bad, it is necessary in order for change. • “In the face of change, power counts” (p.176). • Power can be situational. For example : a teacher may be powerful in the classroom, but powerless if the principal is lecturing them. Bases of power in a Community • Information - Possession of knowledge and the ability to control what other people know gives tremendous advantages. • Money - People with money can get their way in exchange for their money. • Laws - Determining and applying rules can determine who wins the games • Constituencies - Power over people in a group as well as the power to mobilize a large group can have significant influence on the community. • Energy and Natural Resources - Concentrated the reneger source or the more limited and locally valued resource, the more powerful those who control these resources will be. • Goods & Services - Control over important products or services. • Network Participation - Connections in the community provides access to resources and increased ability to mobilize people. • Family - Special favours and inside information are often offered to family members ▯4 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, September 15, 2016 • History - Knowing a communities history, how it has approached similar issues, and where the skeletons are buried can be used to powerful advantage. • Status Occupations - draw prominence and deference give power to the individual or group of individuals currently holding the position. • Illegal Action - Illegal activity expands the scope of the game, giving power to those who go beyond the accepted limits or rules of play. • Personality - A personable or intimating style can extend an individuals power by charging the atmosphere. Social Location - All the love aspects are affected by social location. • What is power? * reward : dispensing valued positive consequences ex. u come to class and get good grades * coercive: punishment/negative consequences * Legitimate : given through position - individual is believed to possess influence over them * referent : approval - respect - identify with, liked or be like * expert : unique knowledge or ability * informational : access to information or knowledge Developing personal power in the broad community - Personal power flows through three sources : 1) Credibility as a person : Do you do what you say you’re going to do ? Can people rely on you? Do you take control of your actions ? Can you be trusted? 2) Credibility of your information : Is your information accurate? Is it timely? Does it consider a different point of view? Is it comprehensive, or is something left out? 3) Credibility of your power base : Will others actively support you? Do you have any resources to withhold or deliver? Empowering others - fostering conditions and beliefs that help others exercise their power - overcoming sets of beliefs, oppressive structures and stifling practice that keep people and their concerns isolated from one another - development of knowledge and skills through reflective action - gaining sufficient knowledge and skill to make systems respond to the highest priority in fields of social work (working with marginalized people) - connection between the personal and political ▯5 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, September 22, 2016 Power, Resistance & Change Definitions - Power Relations • Power relations have always existed throughout society when there is an ability of one individual/group to command, direct, or influence the lives of others • In many cases, power is damaging to those affected. On the other hand, society needs some sort of order/hierarchal arrangement in order to exist (parents-children; teachers-students; government-citizens; etc) The term was first proposed by Karl Marx • Power relations may be changed so that both the emphasizer (social worker) and marginalized (service user) benefit. Oppressions • Racism, sexism, homophobia, sanism • Ableism abled bodied privilege • Classism - single parent discourse - nuclear family privilege • At risk discourse - privilege -“good” citizen • Culturalism Imperialism - adherence to dominant discourse • Languages spoken • Food Security Social Location • Combination of gender, language, mental health, sexuality, class, ability , age , race, etc. • How you identify and how going out into society shapes your reactions. Social constructs. Subject Positioning Moves beyond social location to look at how we engage with dominant discourses and find • ways to resist among our positionally • Moves beyond social location to look at how we engage with the dominant discourses and find ways to resist from our position. Active participation • • Amongst your varied social locations , what do you do with it ? • Do we question these discourses ? For example : How people are labeled ? Are they labeled as a disabled person or a person who has a disability ? Language matters. Defining Oppression • Past - Conquest & Colonialism • Disadvantage and injustice due to everyday practice of ‘well-meaning society” Systemic constraints - not necessarily intentional or planned • Oppression is… • Oppression is structural • Embedded in social norms, habits, symbols, etc • Reinforced by media (ex. j-Cole song) , bureaucracy, stereotypes, economic market , etc • Found in economic, political and cultural institutions ▯1 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, September 22, 2016 What does oppression look like ? • Individual experience i.e. racist attitudes; denial of employment or housing; sexual harassment , etc However oppression is also systematic : • Racism sexism, ableism, heterosexism, classism, etc… • Members of marginalized social groups automatically experience these forms of oppression in their daily lives Explaining Oppression • Oppression CAN and IS intentionally done to individuals and groups by other individuals/ groups Specific groups DO benefit from oppression of others and work to maintain the oppression • Young, I. M. (2000). The Five Faces of Oppression • Past meaning of oppression is the exercise of tyranny and colonial domination. Oppression refers to the systematic constraints on groups that results from the everyday • practices of society (not from intentions of a tyrant). • Oppression is structural, rather than the result of individual choices. • Oppression is embedded into unquestioned norms, habits, and symbols. There are underlying assumptions and rules , along with the collective consequences of following those rules. • Oppression is vast & deep injustices certain groups suffer from as a result of unconscious assumptions and reactions from well meaning people in everyday interactions, media and cultural stereotypes and structural features of hierarchies and market mechanisms. Social Group : A collective group of persons who differ from another group by cultural forms, practices and way or life. • Members of group affiliate/identify with one another based on similar experiences and exclude those who do not identify with the group. • Groups exist in relation to other groups • Sense of history, affinity, separation • Social processes also differ the groups in society, for example : women vs men in the workforce. These form group affinity (connecting with group, sometimes due to ‘throwness’) Faces of Oppression : 1) Exploitation • Oppression occurs through the process of transfer of labour where one group benefits over another • Injustice of class division does not only exist in the fact that some people are wealthy while others are poor • Exploitation enacts a structural relation between groups. Who works, who does not, who does what for whom, etc; produced & reproduced in order to maintain power & status. ▯2 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, September 22, 2016 • Example : feminists show the transfer of power from women to men such as ‘women's work’ = gendered exploitation. • Menial Labour - ‘labour of servants’ assumption that racialized must work for privileged. Also refers to unskilled, low paying, etc. (task requiring little skill/talent) (racialized/gendered) • Canada has a history in exploitation regarding unequal distributions, privilege of one over another, etc. 2 ) Marginalization • Power Over - maintain and further power, wealth, position, status of dominant class Marginalization is the most dangerous form of oppression as categories of people and • excludes them from participation in social life & potentially subjected to material deprivation. • Material Deprivation : inability for individuals/households to afford goods/services Marginals : people the system of labour cannot/will not use • 3) Powerlessness • Professionals are privileged in relation to non professionals due to their position in the division of labour • Non-professionals suffer from a form of oppression as well as exploitation which is called : powerlessness • This group does not participate in decision making that affects the condition of their lives and lack significant power • Powerless = lack authority or power , they take orders not give them, little room to develop capacities and deal with disrespectful treatment 4) Cultural Imperialism • The experience of how the dominant meanings of society structure perspectives of groups as invisible and the “other” • Universalization of dominant experience & culture to be established as the norm. • Others are measured in relation to dominant norm and defined ‘deviant’ and stereotyped without question or notice. • Images of the ‘other’ and alleged “truths” are internalized • ‘Double Consciousness’ looking at self through eyes of others, refusing to concede with devalued, objectified stereotyped visions of self 5) Violence • Violence is systematic because it is directed at members of a group simply because of their affiliation with that group ex. every women has a reason to fear rape. • There is a fear of random, unprovoked attack on their persons/property which have no motive other than to damage • Groups at ‘risk’ of violence; Blacks, Asians, Arabs, gay men, and lesbian, Jews, etc • Group violence is institutionalized & systematic to a degree where it is tolerated & lightly punished • Random systematic violence - irrationality - Xenophobia (fear of ‘foreigners’ or what is considered ‘foreign’) ▯3 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, September 22, 2016 • Motivated by fear/hatred (women,gays,etc) In a Canadian context this can be framed when it comes to racial profiling. • Critical Reflection • Think about a group defined by society as ‘other’ - EX. women • How do the 5 categories of oppression apply to that group? - Exploitation : women make less then men in the workforce as their form of ‘work’ is seen as staying at home and nurturing - Marginalization : In the past women were unable to vote, today women are still excluded from certain aspects of labour and still do not make equal pay. - Powerlessness : Women are not encouraged to stand up or hold positions of power - Cultural Imperialism : the ‘norm’ was for men to go to work and women to stay at home. If women run for office and stick up for themselves they are seen as ‘bitchy’ instead of authoritative -Violence - women experience violence which could be motivated by fear in the workforce of taking positions ? How does ‘othering’ advantage the dominant group? • -‘othering’ can be an advantage to the dominant group because it internally oppresses those groups to believe they are the “other” and may demotivate them and strengthen the power of the dominant group. Parker and Agggleton. (2003). HIV and AIDS related stigma and discrimination • Negative social responses to the epidemic • Lack of interrogation for their conceptual adequacy and usefulness of effective programming • Stigma -“significantly discrediting attribute” • Article offers a new framework in which stigma feeds upon, strengths and reproduces existing inequalities of class, race, gender, and sexuality Stigmatization and discrimination as social processes • Simplicity to conceptual frameworks • To make serious progress in analyzing and responding to the phenomenon of cross cultural diversity it may be necessary not only to attend to their cross-cultural complexity but to rethink some taken for granted frameworks • Tendency to define stigma as “an attribute that is significantly discrediting” • Socially “deviant” behaviours such as homosexuality = “possessing an undesirable difference” • Goffman (1963) argued that the stigmatized individual possess a “undesirbale difference” • stigma is conceptualized by society on the basis of difference or deviance • Need to unpack this analytical category with emphasis placed o “a kind of thing”, a static characteristic, a ‘spolied identity’, something mapped onto people understood as negativity valued in society • Goffmans framework appropriated in much research on stigma • Much work has focused on stereotyping rather than on the structural conditions that produce exclusion from social and economic life ▯4 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, September 22, 2016 • Research and literature focus re. stigma and HIV and AIDS understand stigma in highly emotional terms and responses • “Anger & other negative feelings”; “stigmatizing attitudes and misunderstandings and misinformation concerning the modes of HIV transmission • Focus on beliefs and attitudes of those who are perceived to stigmatize others Emotional responses towards PLWAs - responsibility and blame, discomfort • • Increasing ‘tolerance’, coping skills, increase empathy and altruism • To move beyond limitations reframing the understanding of stigmatization and discrimination to conceptualize them as social processes that must be understood in relation to broader notions of power & domination • Stigma plays a role in producing and reproducing relations of power and control • Causes some groups to be devalued and others to feel superior • Linked to social inequality - how do some individuals and groups come to be socially excluded and the forces that create reinforce exclusion in different settings • stigma used to produce and reproduce social inequality Culture, Power and Difference Foucault - culture or knowledge, power and notions of difference helpful in engaging with • • “Cultural systems”- offer different claims of truth • “Truths”- social products linked to the power of the professions • Relationship between knowledge and power • Cultural production of difference • Construstuction of stigma involves the marking of significant differences between categories of people • Stigma and stigmatization interception between culture, power and difference • “Normal” construction in order to create “abnormal” • Foucault’s focus on power seems unconcerned with stigma Strategic development of stigma • Placing culture, power and difference centre stage re stigma, stigmatization and discrimination open new possibilities for research • Establishment of social order and control • Social systems of hierarchy and domination persist and reproduce themselves over time without generating strong resistance from those who are subject to domination and often without conscious recognition by their members • Bourdieu - all cultural meanings and practices embody interests and functions to enhance socio distinctions among individuals, groups and institutions • Power at the heart of social life and used to legitimize inequalities or stays within the socio structure • Cultural socialization - playing people in positions of competition for statues and valued resources • Symbolic violence - process whereby symbolic systems (words, images and practices) promote the interests of dominant groups as well as distinctions and hierarchies of ranking between them ▯5 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, September 22, 2016 • Legitimating that ranking between them by convincing the dominated to accept existing hierarchies through process of hegemony • Notions of symbolic violence and hegemony help us to understand how those who are stigmatized and discriminated accept and even internalize the stigma they are subjected to • Because they are subjected to overwhelming powerful symbolic apparatus whose function is to legitimize inequalities of power, based on differential understands of values and worth Ability of the oppressed, marginalized and stigmatized to resist is limited • • ▯6 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, October 6, 2016 Power , Resistance & Change Power Relations • Power relations may be changed so that strategies of power benefit both the emphasizer (social worker) and marginalized (service user) Womens Rights and Economic Change (2004) • What is intersectionality ? : Intersectionality is an analytical tool for studying, understanding and responding to the ways in which gender intersects with other identities and how these intersections contribute to unique experiences of oppression and privilege • It starts from the idea that people live multiple, layered identities that are derived from social relations, history and the operation of structures of power • It aims to reveal those multiple identities, exposing the different types of discrimination and disadvantage that occur • It helps us assess the impact and injuries by revealing the loss of opportunities and lack of access to rights and especially how policies and programs, services and laws all impact on aspects of our lives that are linked How do we do intersectionality? • First Step : we need to think differently about identity, equality and power. We must focus on points of intersection , complexity and dynamic processes, as well as the structures that define our access to rights and opportunities, rather than on defined categories or isolated issue areas • Second Step : Use a bottom-up approach to research, analysis and program planning. This involves asking service users to tell us how they actually live their lives, and then implementing these accounts to shape services Why Should We Use Intersectionality? • There is something unique that is produced at the intersection point of different types of discrimination and claims will fall through the cracks when the full context of a person’s experiences are not taken into account. • If our baseline analysis and project planning do not begin with a complete picture f the situation , then our interventions will never achieve their full potential Implications for Practice Encourage the inclusion of privilege as a central concept in the discussion of oppression • • Seek more complex analysis that would consider multiple oppressions as integrated, rather than as singular ▯1 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, October 6, 2016 • Remember that not all forms of oppression are necessarily of equal significance in each circumstance • The authors call for an approach in which there are both individual and group-based power analysis, one that factors in social location, prejudicial relations, historical mistreatment, the lack of inclusion of marginalized groups • Respecting our diverse identities and privilege as women as allows us to build power as a movement based on our strengths and diversity. • Ensuring that all women have a space and voice to determine our agendas • Use our privilege in strategic ways • We can work towards holistic and powerful solutions from the places were our relative privileges intersect Gibson, M. (2013). Intersecting Deviance : Social Work, Difference and the legacy of Eugenics Intersectionality fundamental assertion : social categories of people and institutions often • treated as separate axes of difference (race, gender, class, etc) can not be effectively pulled about but instead operate in coordinated and mutually definitive ways • Crenshaw’s work - female identity cannot be separated from black identity • Hill’s Collins (2000, 1990) - interlocking oppressions (sexism,racism,classism) could not be pulled apart in understanding black women perspectives. All of these are aspects of ones identity and all intersect with one another. Problems • Intersectionality has become mainstreamed and can be used by White feminists to avoid acknowledging their own privilege • It is often treated simplistically, as an additive list of taken for granted identities • We must avoid individualized accounts of difference because they have such limited potential to make change • Anything labeled “personal experience” comes to be taken as unquestioned, as if it exists outside of anger discourses and their histories • Intersectional island -‘see we are all different’- historical context and engagement How to Avoid the Problems… • An active engagement with history for a more nuanced intersectionality that accounts for time/context, social relations and the legacies of power ▯2 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, October 6, 2016 Producing Degeneracy : Sexuality, Deviance and Eugenics • During the late 19th ad early 20th century, European and North American medical writers were obsessed with documenting any perceive regression from the perceived evolutionary ladder • There were policy and practice moves to suppress reproduction by those deemed unfit. People who represented non-normative sexual practices became to be seen as different and representing a threat to the future of society • Discourse of ‘degeneration’ or fear individual and societal regression on the human evolutionary ladder • Eugenics-advocates supported the deliberate reproduction by those deemed ‘fit’ members of society thus suppressing reproduction of those deemed ‘unfit’ Categorical distinctions : shifting views of intersectionality • Shift from list-making intersectionality to an intersectionality that is more temporary, contextually and relationally responsive • List making - easily drawn Venn diagram - shaded part highlights experience on its own terms • Relies the lines which are drawn around the circles and highlights the oddity and numerical scarcity - those who fall under multiple categories become ‘exceptional’ • Assume a universal definition that can can be made for each label : ‘parents’,‘disabled’ LBGTQ - one stays in that fixed position • Author proposes a time - rather than a froze picture where permanent categories are contained within individual bodies and identities - what would happen if instead attention to intersectionality as produced through embodied, institutionally situated, relational narratives Anti-categorical Intersectional Theory • Assemblage - highlights the temporal, contextual and relational aspects of oppression and identity in human interactions , thus maintaining a constant awareness of how histories shape the interpersonal encounters where attributes and power are assembled. • This highlights the temporal, contextual and relational elements of oppression and identity • Based on fluid identities in human interactions - history shapes our interpersonal relations • Power and attributes are assembled to play off each other • Narrative offers such a model • Integrating narratives allows us t ask how histories move in and through peoples experiences of difference • Opportunities to interrogate how such legacies are ‘experienced’ by different bodies, at different moments and spaces and in different sets of elation, some long-lasting(parent and child) and some fleeting (border agent and traveller) ▯3 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, October 6, 2016 • No voice is always oppressed or always oppressive (Hulko, 2009) • The queer parent, the disabled are all contingent and contextual - difference is up for discussion - always a question and not a statement HIV, Gender, Race, Sexual Orientation and Sex Work - Logie, (2011) • Increased HIV infection rates among women in Canada • Disproportionate infection rates amounts marginalized women • Stigma and discrimination are principal gators to the HIV epidemic • Stigma and discrimination are principle factors to the HIV epidemic • Stigma refers to processes of evaluating, labeling and stereotyping • Elevated risk for HIV infection include : HIV related stigma, racism, sexism, and gender discrimination, homophobia, and transphobia Definitions of racism, sexism and gender discrimination, homophobia and transphobia are • described • HIV related stigma complicated by intersection of other form of stigma • Intersectionality refers to the interdependent and mutually constitutive relationship between social identifies and structural inequalities • Intersection of stigmas exacerbates preexisting structural inequalities based on race, gender, and sexual orientation experienced on micro (intra/interpersonal) mess (communitity/social networks) and macro levels (structural/institutional exclusion/discrimination) • Racism another form of stigma and discrimination refer to system of oppression and inequity • Jones (2000) describes three forms of racism : 1) Personally mediated (unintentional and intentional prejudice or discrimination) 2) Institutional - unequal accès to material conditions and opportunities 3) Internalized - stigmatized person acceptance of negative messages about oneself and ones community Sexism and gender discrimination - in part account for physical and mental health • inequalities • Homophobia and transphobia - refer to dscrimination, fear, hostility and violence towards non heterosexual and transgender people • Stigma attributed to increased mental health diagnosis • Complicated by intersection of other forms of stigma - overlapping stigma associated with gender, race and sexual orientation ▯4 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, October 6, 2016 Results • HIV related stigma : “Its such a taboo topic” • Hiding HIV positive status • Embedded in community and social norms • Symbolic stigma - othering, blaming and shaming of marginalized group • Fear and silence regarding HIV present barriers to disclosing ones status • Symbolic stigma - bothering , blaming and sharing of a marginalized group and people associated with this stigmatized group Sexism, and Gender Discrimination • Internalized stigma • Highlighted in relationships and societal attitudes - dearth of women specific services • Exploited in inequitable relationships with male partner • Community and social norms may silence discussion regarding violence against HIV positive women • High listed in employment system Racism : You’re thinking “You come from Africa, you don't understand” • Aboriginal participants -“we are suppressed as natives in our nation” • “African community is not informed about anything” • “Women of colour are silent about their needs and what they want exactly…” • “Research is all about the White folks and what the White folks want to get from black people” thus exploiting black bodies Institutionalized racism noted in health and pregnancy planning • Homophobia and Transphobia : “They see you being queer as being demonic” • Participants experienced homophobia and transphobia within familial, community and health care institutions • Stigmatizing community and social norms construct sexual minorities as “demonic” and HIV as a “gay disease” • Homophobia and HIV stigma converge and resulted in stigmaa such as violence • Socioreligious attitudes • Transgender partipant - highlighted discrimination and exclusion with health care • Exclusion and invisibility of LBQ and transgender women signals heterosexism ▯5 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, October 6, 2016 Sex Work Stigma : “They treat you like you’re a rat” • Participants involved in sex work highlighted felt normative, enacted and symbolic stigma experienced because of their HIV positive (whether virus is detectable or not) • Lost friendships • Intersection of sex work stigma, HIV related stigma and drug use stigma • Fear of disclosing sex work involvement and HIV infection may also influence relationships with family and reduce access to care • Community and social norms endorse symbolic HIV related stigma towards sex workers • Seen as ‘vectors of disease’ Legal and health care systems enacted sex work stigma • Coping Strategies Enacted by Women Living with HIV Residence, hope, tenacity; “I always live with hope” • • Social Networks: “ I want to see more peer support” • “Stand against the stigmatization of ourselves” • Engagement of women, political mobilization, need for education, need for empowerment, challenging the hierarchy • Reduce distance between service providers, recognizing knowledge of lived experiences, participant directed research, etc. • Resilience, optimism and spirituality facilitated coping Morrow, et, al. (2004). Women and Violence - The effects of dismantling the welfare state • Dismantling of welfare state • Women who are survivors of physical and sexual violence are often dependent on state funded organizations and social welfare as they attempt to leave violent partners • Government spending on supports and social policy initiatives has diminished substantially in the area of violence against women Neoliberal discourse has marginalized feminist claims for women equality • • Undermines women equality and their safety Dismantling of the Canadian social welfare state • Welfare state - a series of social programming and policies aimed at reducing inequality through redistribution of goods and services and correcting for the inadequacy of the private market to provide sufficient good employment ▯6 find more resources at find more resources at Thursday, October 6, 2016 • Neoliberalism - an approach to social, political and economic life that discourages collective or government services, instead encouraging reliance o the private market and individual skill to meet social needs
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