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How Society Works - Lecture Notes.docx

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SOC 103
Tonya Davidson

How Society Works Lecture Notes Sep, 11, 2012 Introduction to Classical Social theory Theories in sociology are abstract, general ideas that help organize and make sense of the social world (attempt to link ideas with actual events) Classical social theory (1840s 1920s) The enlightenment, political revolution (American revolution, French revolution), the industrial revolution American and French revolution inspired more widespread adoption of democratic principle and rights of citizens Industrial revolution caused dramatic, rapid urbanization, changes in family relations, gender relations, increased secularization Classical social theorist and macro and micro theorists macro are interested are in social theory that can explain huge social phenomenons (past and future), micro are interested in smaller scale phenomenons Emile Durkheim was a positivist, saw society as analogous to a body, concerned with social solidarity, and developed the idea of the social fact Social Solidarity: division of labour Organic: present in modern societies, high dynamic density, high degree of labour specialization (works like a human body, everything works together with high specialization) Mechanical: present in traditional societies, low dynamic density , low degree of labour specialization (works like gears, works together to complete society) Similarities of Social Solidarity: Conscience collective similar ideas of morality, similar ideas about space time and reality (collective ideas of morality, what you can and cannot do with the influence on laws, teachings, parents etc.) In modern society are functional, high amount of labour (all works together, functionalism) Crime is a functional part of society (punishment s are set, so others dont commit crime) A social fact is way of acting. Fixed, or not capable of exercising on individual an external constrain, or way of acting which is general throughout society, while at same time existing. (Social fact: external to the self, beyond the biography of self, affects individual, actions, thoughts, religion, fashion, education etc.) Durkheim: Studying multiple variables will allow you to determine relationship of various social facts Durkheim: Suicide is social (men more suicidal than women) Karl Marx: Idea of historical materialism, Labour theory of value, Understanding of ideology Historical Materialism: the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles, human history result of human action, human action determined by material realities (economic realities: due to economy) History is not made with time but propelled over access to power and materials (dialects of history: primitive communism, feudalism, capitalism (current system), communism) Capitalism (a system of exploitation, the current system) Labour Theory of Value: use value (what it does for you), exchange value (cost), surplus value (excess of value produced by labour in relation to wages) , commodity (something bought or sold with value), commodity fetishism Surplus value: what you invest into a water bottle for ex., how much you pay your workers, and how much you sell the bottle for is the surplus value to accumulate maximum surplus value by paying workers very little Alienation: From ones own labour force, from the products of ones labour, form other people, from ones self (labour is something you can sell now, workers are alienated, they cannot afford to buy what they make most of the time) Workers in China had suicide working in Apple factory due to too much demand and pressure of making Iphone3s Ideology: That which is taken as naturally, but serves the interest of the powerful ** Ideology is like a camera of obscure (image of reality is not what it seems: distorted) Mark: Religion is like a drug, makes you blind from reality and exploitation of living on earth, school is also an ideology Max weber: founder of interpretive sociology, developed schema for studying and analyzing micro interactions at a macro-sale Verstehen (understanding): understanding and interpretation 1) Direct observation understanding 2) Explanatory Understanding (historically, mass social phenomenon, based on understanding of ideal types) Ideal Types: Analytical tools designed to id in the analysis of complicated social life, they are abstractions, not intended to corresponded to lived experiences, allows verstehen to be understood as scientific (ex. Birth age, high school groups, types of musicians, sports players etc.) September, 18 , 2012 Methods, Ethics & Socialization Research design: A broad topic being narrowed into a specific topic, ex. Pets to dogs to bulldogs to a research question (quantitative study) Qualitative question: relationship b/w aggression and hockey Quantitative & Qualitative are data methods (for collecting and analyzing data) Collect data: participant observation, surveys, interviews Analyze data: content analysis, statistical analysis (surveys etc., narrative analysis (interviews etc.) There is a mixed method which uses a combined of both methods ** Neither one of these methods are valid (both are flawed), they are just used to answer different types of questions Quantitative: begins with hypothesis and why questions (relationships b/w variables), purpose to explain phenomena and test hypothesis (deductive reasoning) Qualitative: begins with what and how questions, purpose to explore phenomena (inductive reasoning) ** quantitative methods reduced to numbers that can be analyzed and qualitative is reduced to a narrative (text) Quantitative: for larger samples, (surveys, stats analysis, content analysis) ( more of a Durkheim traditions) Qualitative: smaller sample size, (contents, in depth interview, participant observation, ethnographic method) Hypothesis: a testable theory, a statement about a particular relationship that can be tested empirically Variables: independent variable - can be manipulated, dependent variable is the reaction (or lack of thereof) of the manipulation (ex. Gender (independent) & beverage (dependent) Operational definition: describes how a variable is measured Types of data: demographic (census), social environment (certain areas/neighbourhoods), activities (media exposure, commute time etc.), opinions & attitudes Survey designs: cross-sectional (ex. Canadians), longitudinal (ex. survey same people every 3 years), trend (ex. Crush) , cohort (ex. particular demographic) People get most of their data from census and Statistics Canada * Quantitative Research: Michael Haan (2007) location and immigrant economic well-being in Canada hypothesis: there is a relationship b/w city of immigrant settlement and economic well-being * Independent variable: gateway cities Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, non- gateway cities * Dependent variable: economic well-being employment status, income, employment mismatch * His research showed that economic well-being slightly better in non-gateway cities Qualitative Research methods: Ethnography (writing about culture - participant observation, interviewing, archival research), Content analysis Harriet Martineau: the first famous female sociologist (wrote ethnography society in America 1837, how to observe morals and manners 1838) do not rush to conclusions when doing ethnographic research, do not generalize from limited observations, recognize that observations are cognations to the truth (understand that you are going to see one side of the culture, limited access to information, not laugh or judge other cultures (ethnocentric), can include: interviews, stats, and Erving Goffman: he was an excellent ethnographer, wrote Asylums 1961 Content Analysis: any systematic procedure which is devised to examine the content recorded information (Walizer & Wiener 1978: 343) Media analyzed: newspapers & books, pamphlets, graffiti, film, TV, ads, letters, etc. Socialization: how society has produced us to act the lifelong process by which we learn our culture, develop our personalities, and become functioning members of society (Ravelli, Webber, Patterson p.98) Primary Socialization (birth to adolescents), Secondary socialization (goes both ways, ex. Prof teaches you, you teach prof), Anticipatory socialization (process of socialization of new role ex. Widow, prof, student etc.), Re-socialization (practices of helping people re-enter society, ex. People in jail, people traumatized etc.) We are always being taught, what is being expected of us, then we perform our roles Process Childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adult hood, late adult hood Symbolic interaction & George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) The social self: I = spontaneous, creative, impulsive, and unpredictable part of the social self, Me = socialized element of the self, part of consciousness that thinks about how you are being perceived (object and subject) Children & the social self: limitation, role playing, game playing, the generalized other (learn what is right, wrong, feelings, how you affect other factors etc.) Agents of Sociali
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