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CRB100 Exam Review.docx

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Ryerson University
SOC 103
Terry Roswell

CRB100 Exam Review The Haitian Revolution (1791-1803) 1. Became the first successful revolution in Caribbean history 2. Showed it was possible to rise up over the European elites (influenced and inspired other countries) 3. Gave hope to enslaved people 4. Created a constitution Haiti – “Liberty, Quality, Fraternity” Influence of the French Revolution on Events in Saint Domingue  Period between 1750 and 1850 was a “revolutionary fever” around the world o Social, economic, religious, political, and ideological metamorphosis  1776 American Independence from Britain o Slavery still exists in US at this point  The Enlightenment led to discussions around individual and collective liberty of political rights and class equality o Fostered critiques about moral, religious and economic justifications of slavery  French Revolution begins in 1789 o Close ties with motherland raises awareness of discord Saint Domingue’s Social Structure Grand Blancs (Big Whites)  Top of social hierarchy (royal officials, large property owners)  1/6 of the ‘white’ population and 1% of total population (equal gender ratio)  ‘Patriots’ to French regime until collapse then support British  Local autonomy and free trade within empire  Notion of liberty in Revolutionary banter Petit Blancs (Little Whites)  Second strata – accounted for most of white population o ‘blancs manants’ were the poorest o Gender ratio of men:women was 3:1  Looked down upon by grand blancs  Racist towards mulattoes and blacks despite their class o Partly a result of competitions with free ‘black’ population  Wanted equality with all whites and loosened administrative control = theme of equality over liberty Free Persons of Colour  ‘affranchis’ (freed people); mulattoes, or ‘gens de couleur’ o Terms used to describes this middle class  Comprised of large numbers of mulattoes and some blacks o More numerous/prosperous than those in other colonies o Members of rural police/militia, overseers, small land owners (sugar/coffee) o Increasing discrimination after 1730s led to discontent  Focused on equality and fraternity with whites  Notable persons in Revolution: Vincent Oge, Henri Christophe, Andre Rigaud Enslaved Africans  Outnumbered ‘whites’ and coloured by 8:1 o Bottom of society  Divided into ‘creoles’ (locally born) and ‘bozales’ (imported Africans) o High % of Africans because mortality rates and brutality was high  Prevalence of cultural strength derived from African-oriented religions like Vodun  Notable persons in Revolution: o Boukman, Touissant L’Ouverture, Jean-Francois, Jeannot, Jean- Jacques Dessalines Jean-Jacques Dessalines Henri Christophe  Provincial leader after revolution  President of north Haiti 1807  Self-imposed Emperor 1804  Set up own monarchy (Citadel)  Assassinated 1806  Committed suicide in 1820 Alexandre Petion  Fought L’Ouverture in 1791 and with Dessalines and Christophe to overthrow French rule  Became leader of south Haiti in 1807  Died in 1818 Haiti become independent from the French on January 1 1804 Colour/Class rivalry Poverty  Constant war/distrust/rivalry between black and  Economy destroyed brown, dark and light o Shift from plantation economy to small scale farming o Major depopulation o Lack of technical skills o No administration or government Militarized state Debt  Violence of Revolution and initial leadership as wel Petion agreed to pay indemnity to expelled colonists as always being on defensive led to inordinate  Debts to foreign banks military power  Policies aimed at favouring mulattoes seen by blacks Isolation Inspiration to Enslaved Peoples  Haitians making internal distinctions, but the worl Beacon of hope view as free black nation and thus threat an catalyt Threat to social order for other revolutions Emancipation and Post-Emancipation 1. The abolishment of the ‘Slave Trade’ 2. New Arrivals 3. Development of middle tier and creole culture August 1 , 1834 – Emancipation of slavery in the British Caribbean st August 1 , 1838 – Full Abolition of slavery in the British Caribbean Contradictions Inherent in the Practice of Slavery  Principles inherent in American and French revolutions brought to light the most hypocritical contradiction in human history  The US was conceived in liberty and dedicated to proposition that “all men were created equal” YET it was the Western nation with the largest number of enslaved peoples Abolitionist Movement in the UK  British abolitionism is controversial, complex and baffling  Moral progression history 1772  Tensions between Britain and US, Granville Sharp (abolitionist) won legal case of Somersett 1787  Group called ‘Society for Effecting Abolition of the Slave Trade’ (SEAST) out of concerns about horrors of Atlantic slave trade “SEAST”  11% were women st  Thomas Clarkson was 1 professional abolitionist  Started petition campaigning to end slavery (100,000 signatures in the 1 year) 1792 – William Wilberforce  British government received 519 anti-slave petitions (390,000 signatures)  Hero in Britain  Most vocal proponent and persuades House of Commons to outlaw Atlantic slave trade in 4 years – failed 1807  Wilberforce’s friend becomes Prime Minister  British Parliament bans Atlantic slave trade  US passes legislation banning slave trade to take effect 1808  Britain, at this point, has the strongest naval power in the world 1810  British negotiate with Portugal for gradual abolition of slave trade in South Atlantic  Naval ships protecting trafficking  Some captains merely relocating enslaved Africans in Brazil, Cuba, etc. Stage One 1815 – Slave registry  Prevents illegal imports and records numbers of enslaved peoples 1822  Abolitionists argue end of slave trade didn’t bring desired effects on slavery  Call for Total Through Gradual emancipation of all British slaves Stage Two 1823 – Amelioration Law  Laws that aimed at treating slaves better with better living conditions Stage Three 1830 – London Anti-Slavery Society disseminates radial antislavery literature 1831-32 – slave rebellion in Jamaica highlights hazards and costs of maintaining system and moral discipline of perceived “savages” 1833 – Parliament receives more than 5000 antislavery petitions with over 1.5 million signatures August 1 , 1834 – 800,000 slaves emancipated Apprenticeship System  Newly freed people worked 45 hours a week for basic necessities like food, shelter, etc. but no pay August 1 1838 – countries like Bahamas and Trinidad are emancipated The “New” Indentureship, 1848-1917 New races were introduced to the Caribbean:  Portuguese, Chinese, East Indian, Syrian/Lebanese How was it different?  Time frame different (1800s)  “white man’s burden” intensifies  Britain is the world power – need of markets to sell manufactured goods  “Divide and rule” in Caribbean (introduction of a variety of races with different cultures)  British interested in sugar colonies 1. West India Committee (1775) founded by London merchants and absentee planters 2. White elites in Caribbean who depended on sugar for livelihood 3. Colonial office eventually accepts indentureship  Anti-slavery Society opposed indentureship but eventually appeased by glowing reports of indentureship’s success and humane treatment of people Portuguese - Brought as a ‘buffer group’ to add to the white population and be between the blacks and whites. Monopolized in the retail industry Chinese – brought initially as plantation workers but eventually went on to retail industry. Most men abandoned Chinese women upon arrival in the Caribbean which led to prostitution among women. Language and physical indifference was an issue for them in the Caribbean. East Indians – the largest population of new arrivals around this time. They came as plantation workers in places like Trinidad and Guyana mostly. They had much conflict with the Africans. Most of them were Hindus with the exception of a few Moslems. They operated with a caste system in India. Syrian/Lebanese – small population of this group. Mostly went into retail as well. Mostly Christians. The Cuban Revolution The first Cuban Revolution was the fight for independence from Spain. Jose Marti led this movement in 1895 The second force that Cubans were f
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