Study Guides (238,516)
Canada (115,191)
Sociology (441)
SOC 103 (54)

MIDTERM REVIEW (CH1-3,4,6) .docx

12 Pages
Unlock Document

Ryerson University
SOC 103
Silvano Guzzo

Chapter 1: Sociology and the Study of Society What is sociology? Sociology: study of society and social phenomena Goal: study past patterns to find major strains and predict direction of social change (within limits)  HOW people live and interact  SHAPED by organization of society Questions to ask:  How do we take certain social norms or roles for granted?  How do certain social phenomena become normalized?  How do people in society become located in different positions of power, or have unequal access to resources (i.e., income, housing, employment, education)?  How does society work to position people differently whereby some people have greater access to resources while others are denied access to resources? What is society? Society: product of social relationships (shaped by historical, cultural, social, economic and political variables)  Liberating: regulates our interactions, getting us to conform to existing social structures and norms  Constraining: limits what others can do to us Society members: organized within set of dominant beliefs, values and behaviors 1) Social structures 2) Social organization 3) Social relations of ruling Social norms: shared rules society members abide by, defining and prescribing what’s considered “normal behavior” taught and learned through formal and informal social structures  How we should behave  What we should believe  What we should value in society What is the role of society in our lives? Formal social structures: institutions regulating our BBV’s by teaching us interests, beliefs, values and norms of the ruling class elite  Education system, media, state, police, justice system… Informal social structures: individuals regulate each other’s behavior through mannerisms, body language and verbal communication Social regulation: ways we regulate each other’s behavior in our daily encounters Deviance: behavior that resists or challenges existing social order TIMELINE th th th th th th th 146 B.C 4 and 5 B.C 9 and 12 A.D 17 Late 17 and 18 |---------|------------------------------------|------------------------------|---------------------------|---------------------|----------------- --| Ancient Greece Scientific Inquiry Arab European Beginning of Decline Enlightenment Enlightenment Industrial Revolution Scientific inquiry/Study of Empirical Thought: using scientific methods of experimentation to explain world aspects (and beyond)  You have to be able to answer every question about the world  Answers only valid if scientifically proven (ie. experimentation) Arab Enlightenment: Re-merge of scientific inquiry during “Golden Age of Spain”  Algebra, art, poetry, philosophy, literature, medicine studies  Muslims and Jews together to develop scientific methods to study religion  Disappeared again in 12 A.D (Christians conquered Muslim) European Enlightenment: used scientific methods to replace religion explanations (Arab Enlightenment) while questioning existing social order were supposedly explained as unalterable and “God-given” Secularism: moving away from and rejection of religion, for favor of science *Age of Reason *Age of Progress  Man (European) = reasonable and rational being  “Rational man” = use scientific methods to understand and alter world for better  Should be allowed to make own choices about his life (ie. Job)  Alter universe -> physics & astronomy  Did NOT include women, minorities or poor people  Alter body -> disease & medicine  Alter society -> government & laws Idealism [Hegel] Materialism/Marxism [Marx]  Concept: how to change society to make it better  Based on everyday material reality  Ideas: shape how we construct our lives  Ideas: derived from what we see and experiences *Proven/disproven/changed through scientific study EXPLAINING SOCIAL PHENOMENA The way we see and understand our world is through: a) social position b) experiences Paradigms:  Explain how society is the way it is  Criticize how it operates Order Theories (Proximal Power) Change Theories/Marxism (Distal Power) “How individual behavior & views influence society” “How individual behavior is influenced by society”  Explain why the world is the way it is  How economic, political and social changes could improve lives or make it better  Things should stay as is!  Reflects: interests of elite/ruling class b/c they usually have great power and privilege  Examples of change theories: 1) Feminist –challenge sexist structures of 1) Biological Determinism “Anatomy is destiny” patriarchy 2) Anti-racist –challenge discriminatory practices  Biology pre-determines our behavior and denial of resources 2) Structural Functionalism 3) New social movements –challenge  All parts needs to function orderly to work globalization that reproduce structures of  Chaos = break down or refusal to conform poverty for 3 world countries  Examples: deviance (crime) or resistance (strikes & social movements) TEXTBOOK NOTES: Relations of Power Power: ability to carry out will despite opposition; control people have of society’s resources A) Proximal –power within personal relationships (ie. Teachers, parents, students) B) Distal –power within society Science and Dialectics Defined: change is a result of internal stresses 1) Everything is related –nothing is understood in isolation 2) Change is constant –continual process 3) Change proceeds from the quantitative to the qualitative –accumulation of change becomes a new quality 4) Change is the result of the unity and struggles of opposites –form basis of social change Chapter 2: Is Human Behavior the result of our biology? Instinct: something we are born knowing how to do (not taught) which are socially constructed and acquired **But we are actually taught how to do these three things” 1. Survival Instinct 2. Mothering Instinct 3. Sexual Instinct o We learn what’s dangerous or o Women don’t know how to be a o Socially regulated and shaped not during young age mother just because they have through societal norms a uterus (anatomy & biology to o We can control it do so) o Taught to take on feminist roles and work PROCESS OF EVOLUTION: CHARLES DARWIN Darwinism: focused on the concept of “natural selection” Arguments: 1) Species are well developed if they… a) survived in its natural environmenb) produces viable offspring Natural selection: random and unplanned; no route that guarantees species will survive Darwin’s Theory/Survival of the Fittest: the “fittest” are those who are able to adapt and evolve genetically to their changing environment (MOST ADAPTABLE) THE HUMAN PACKAGE 1) Bipedalism and Toolmaking  Wider view of surroundings = spot preys before they did!  Find and reach food above ground  Freed up forearms for multitasking 2) Meat Eating  Social activity of cooperation and collectivity among people  Led to sharing on jobs and food 3) Language: Systems of Symbolization  Development of shared rules and structures  Ability to rely and depend on each other (ie. Help find, trap and hunt) 4) Large and Complex Brain  Development of memory, tools and technologies 5) Control of Sexuality 6) Sociability BIOLOGICAL DETERMINISM: THE THEORY (AKA. SOCIAL DARWINISM AND SOCIOBIOLOGY) “All social inequalities are the result of natural biological and genetic differences” “Anatomy is destiny”: everything about you (ie. abilities, behavior, social class, job, status) are predetermined by your biology and genetics and it cannot be changed Social Darwinists argued: i) There’s nothing unplanned or random about biological determinism ii) “Superior race” = highest form of development and civilization iii) “Interior race” = women, poor and racial minorities Biological Determinists concluded from measuring people’s body parts that: i) Shape and size = basis for criminal behavior ii) Skin color = symptom of natural superiority or inferiority (dark persons = naturally diseased nature) SOCIAL CONSQUENCES OF BIOLOGICAL DETERMINISM (SANDER GILMAN’S WORK) Jews: natural corruption and shady character Blacks: limited mental capability and inability to control sexuality Asians: high brain development and lack of sexuality Women: uterus and ovaries were the basis of mental illness and unequal access to resources USE OF BIOLOGICAL DETERMINISM  Changing beauty characteristics to become a certain superior race  Our “ugly” = inherent “inferiority” THE EUGENICS MOVEMENT (FATHER: FRANCIS GALTON) Eugenics: policy and practice used to support biological deterministic ideology Argument: if x behavior traits are deemed (-), then its easier to “improve” these species Selective mating process: 1) Encouragement of “superior” people to procreate 2) Discouragement of “inferior” people from reproducing **Wealthy had one to none b/c too much meant poverty and low social status” HOW THE STATE PARTICIPATED IN EUGENICS POLICIES AND PRACTICES  Discourage poor from having lots of children  Method: Limited # of “inferior” people immigrating to Canada Western nations:  Encourage wealthy to have children (“Wealthy stock”)  Method: Deny birth control to middle and upper class families Disabled members:  Sterilization: to remove those with negative behaviors in order to make perfect humankind  One member disabled = whole family biologically defective  Went on until 1972 in Canada! HOW EUGENICS ARE PRACTICED TODAY  Human Genome Project  Modern fetus screening  Norplant: legal contraceptive device TEXTBOOK NOTES: Chapter 3: Culture, Foraging Societies, and the Transformation to Early Agrarian Societies MARGRET MEAD Study focus: kin-ordered societies (foraging societies, nomadic societies, and hunting and gathering societies) Participation observation: lived and participated in own community Conclusion: nothing is biologically determined about human behavior (the way we behave and interact is socially constructed)  Human behavior = product of process of socialization (the learned cultural beliefs and patterns of society) WHAT IS CULTURE? Culture: complete way of life shared by people within a specific society (incl. material and non material elements) Material Elements Non material Elements Allows understanding of: Examples: a) Economic, social and political arrangements 1) Cognitive (knowledge and beliefs) b) What society valued 2) Symbolic (verbal and non-verbal) Examples: baskets, dishes, clothing, art, makeup 3) Normative (values and expected behaviors) ETHNOCENTRISM AND EUROCENTRISM Ethnocentrism (Prejudice) Eurocentrism (Racism) “How all communities measure other communities “Belief that Western values, beliefs and ways of being against norms, beliefs and values of their own” and doing are “superior” to all others”  Uses own group = standard RACISM Systemic Racism Institutional Racism “Discriminatory practices and processes built into “Discriminatory practices and policies built into structures of society” institutions of society that consciously or unknowingly promote and reproduce differential privileges for those “Laws, rules and norms fixed in the social system of a dominant race” resulting in an unequal distribution of economic, political, and social reso
More Less

Related notes for SOC 103

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.