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Examine the strengths and weaknesses of any one social scientific approach studied on the module.doc

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SOC 104
Margaret Buckby

Examine the strengths and weaknesses of any one social scientific approach studied on themoduleThere are various approaches emerged in social scientific analysis like structuralism functionalism rational choice theory interpretive theory critical theory feminism and postmodernism etc In this paper I want to examine the strengths and weaknesses of postmodernism In discussing the postmodernism approach it is necessary to discuss the historical background and the major aspects of postmodernismPost modernism is hard to define because it is a concept that appears in a wide variety of discipline or areas of study including art architecture music film literature sociology communication fashion and technology Actually it is a complicated term or set of ideas which emerged as an area of academic study since the mind 1980s basically it started since World War IIThe term has been employed in connection with various ideas and periods over the past century However these remain largely superficial connections outside the boundaries of socioeconomic changes since 1945 It is only against the background of economic expansion particularly in the 1960s that postmodern disposition as an aspect of post modernisation becomes intelligible The genesis of the debates over postmodernism post modernisation and post modernity come at this time and are implicated in a range of notable texts and the economic and sociocultural changes narrated by these critics are fundamental to an understanding of the emergence of postmodern dispositionsAdditionally the development of postmodern dispositions coincides with various political crises of the late 1960s particularly in the case of France which precipitated a weakening of attachments to Marxist philosophy and a shift toward post structuralism Then work of poststructuralist authors such as Derrida brought into question several traditional philosophical assumptions particularly dispositions toward the objectivity of knowledge This shift in emphasis was partly responsible for the development of the themes of difference and contingency In this way the emergences of ideas which constitute postmodern dispositions have coincided with a historically specific moment of capitalist expansion in advanced capitalist societies1Capitalist restructuration causes sociocultural displacement in advanced capitalist societies This is what we understand as postmodernization This displacement causes a reorientation or restructuration of traditional norms and values which have been previously dominant As a result of postmodernisation politics is conditioned in reference to a postmodern political dispositionIn the United Kingdom this has been clearest in connection with a reorientation of social democracy within the Labour Party The Labour Partys modernisation programme is a response to this post modernisation of political conditions In short it is possible to argue that labour is being post modernisedin the sense that it is accommodating and reconciling itself to the prevailing logics of contemporary capitalist relations Indeed New Labours modernization programme can be seen as part of a process which preserves and extends the overall socioeconomic forces inherent to postmodernisationMajor Aspects of Post Modernism 1 It emerged through looking at critiques of structuralist Marxism and post structuralism2 Collapsing the idea of a social formation with the economic level determinant in the last instance that means the idea of economic determinism has been challenged3 It denies the modernism which in associated with the Enlightenment as a universal rationality then it challenges the concept of causality Society is no longer a consoli dated structure it in fragmented4 It gives great weight on importance of Hermeneation interpretation challenging science5 It is a flexibleit permits the maximum level of individual freedom maximum level of individual choiceagency individual is not a blank space he has capacity to judge himself 2
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