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SOC 104
Tonya Davidson

September 24, 2013 How Society Works: Social Class and Inequality: • Class: Objective and subjective manners o Can be measured based on income o Not just based on money but also based on post secondary education and different networks with people • Classism:Assessing someone based on a hunch or impression of their social class • Meritocracy: You get what you deserve • False consciousness: Middle class basis  people believing people are in the middle class objectively even if they’re not o They are not hated but also not pitied like the working class • Social Structures: Class is 1 social structure o There are multiple social structures o Social class is a set of beliefs where we create taxonomies about people and what they can do o Big social ideas like gender, race, age o Sexual orientation o Ability/disability o The idea of social identity  created by us and for us because of the multiple social structures in which we are situated  Refers to how we react with the multiple social structures to understand ourselves • Social Stratification • Social Mobility: the ability to change one’s class position  some would say there is very limited social mobility in this structure/society Marx and Conflict theory • How the media works as an ideological site • Idea that TV and movies are theAmerican dream machine and that we are constantly bombarded by the representation of an ideology or the happy upper class o We see most often the happy middle class  produced to be normal  everyone has a happy life o Very limited diversity o The working classes in TV are presented/represented as class clowns  we get this idea in these representations that the working class is poor because they just don’t cut it. That they are goofy people and that they are unintelligent • Critics also talk about reality TV shows and Talk shows o We see for the working class that they have no class o That working people are poor not only because they cant cut it but they are tasteless and it is legitimate to make fun of them o The working class is the source of humor o Shows that are helping people improve their lives o Shows are based on individual troubles o Eg: Jerry Springer, What not to wear, Honey Boo Boo •The poor in newspapers (ppt) •3 frames  little talk about structural causes o Individualizing frame  How they got in their situation  Individual causes o Rationalization frame  Interested in policy solutions  Cost-benefit analysis  Rationalizing policies o Social justice frame  Thinking about poverty in terms of quality of life  Advocated for collective action  Understanding in thinking about poverty in terms of the labour theory of value  Capitalism is an exploitive system which puts people in poverty September 26, 2013 Weber: Class, Status, and Party: CLASS = access to material resources STATUS = access to social prestige PARTY = a group of people who collectively seek power in the face of opposition • Didn’t understand the world as concrete facts, but was interested at how people had subjective meanings for their lives • Tried to complicate Marx’s ideas of social class • Power is not just distributed along the lines of class as to who owns what o Power is produced in a more nuance way • Said there are not just 2, but 4 social classes o The bourgeoisies  owners of the means of production, people that were large business owners o The petty bourgeoisies  also owners of the means of production, but on a smaller scale  Galen Weston (owner of Loblaws has more power than the owner of a flower shop)  They both have power but one is much more limited o Specialists  white collar workers, don’t own the means of production, but have more access to power because they are more specialized  have more access to education o Proletariats  do not own the means of production, and limited social mobility • Power is divided according to status • We can understand status through more subjective ideas • Status is associated with social prestige  social class • People with a lot of access to material wealth are often more respected (Eg. Bosses or powerful business owners) • Clergies or ministers don’t have a lot of access to material wealth but are very respected and have social status • Weber said you could have a lot of social class and no social status (Eg. Criminals  Conrad Black) Symbolic interaction & Thorstein Veblen • How we produce meaning through small scale interactions • Conspicuous consumption  brands • Conspicuous leisure  going on vacations • Conspicuous waste  leaving humungous tips at restaurants • The things you have are symbolic articulations about class and status • Commodity fetishism • Interested in how we produce class at a symbolic level Gender and work: • Sex segregation o Gender discrimination with work  men are paid more than women • Wages • Dominant persistent gender ideologies • The Glass Ceiling  technically there are laws in place that state that you can’t not hire someone for management because they are a woman. Somehow only a small percent of management are women. Women aren’t losing their jobs because they are pregnant • Limited family work policies • Effects women more than men • Ideas about what a good woman is don’t match up with what a good manager is  (responsible, organized, strong, independent, aggressive)  women don’t have the ideal characteristics of a manager • Dominant gender norms keep women trapped on a sticky floor • Low paying jobs are meant for women  cleaning positions/any domestic training jobs • Glass Cellar  refers to the reality of the most dangerous professions  mainly men do dangerous jobs. Yes these are dangerous positions but they are also positions that men work hard to keep for themselves • Glass Escalator  refers to the quick promotion of men in traditionally female professions • The Philadelphia Negro  Text that says that it is not biology that creates racial divisions, rather this is a result of history and oppressive social structures o in this context white people were concerned about black context o 1700s: the black community built churches, businesses, schools, and entered many professions o 1820: rise in white immigration and decided that the black people had taken their jobs even though they were there before them  responded by burning down their churches  taken away the right to vote in 1838 o 1840s-1870s: blacks started to recover o 1870: greater racial segregation and discrimination on personal liberties • Africville: Black immigrants from united states moved to Halifax area o Were not given proper land, resources, electricity, health services, etc o Forced to leave in 1964-67 o Mayor apologized • Poverty o Absolute poverty  lack of access for money needed for essential services for survival o Relative poverty  understanding the needs in relation to community standards • Measuring poverty: o Sarlo line  measure of absolute poverty  similar to a market basket measure  how much it costs to have the bare minimum to survive, and if they have more than that then they are not living in poverty. Doesn’t include essentials (toys, books, etc.)  leads people to believe that his measures were severe o Low income cut off line (LICO)  Makes determinations based on stats Canada how much one person should spend on food per week  includes things like the Toronto poverty line will be more expensive than a place like Nova Scotia because the cost of living and transportation is more in a bigger city o Low-income measure (LIM)  from stats Canada looks at your media income in wherever you are living. Is highly relative. People that are living 50% below the average income is living in poverty • Living wage: the idea that if you are living full time hours on minimum wage you should be able to support yourself • Taxation: income tax: progressive transaction  people who make more money are taxed more • Consumer Tax: regressive taxation: GST and PST on consumer goods (cars, furniture, clothing, etc.)  regressive because people who make less money are taxed more than wealthy people  effects people more when they buy bigger things (buying a car or house) READ EDUCATIONAND HEALTH IN TEXTBOOK October 1, 2013/October 3, 2013 Ppt photos: Glass ceiling phenomenon  when Forbes magazine only has 1 woman on it (business) Are you man enough to be a nurse  sex segregation – saying that being a nurse is a job for women  can set a positive example by saying that men can be nurses as well Not all girls are passengers  saying that only men drive  challenging gender norms (masculinity and auto mobility) Defining gender: • The difference between sex and gender is that sex is the physical biology • Gender is the cultural meanings that are made from that biology • Gendered ideas are culturally specific and historically specific • Sex may be considered stable but gender is highly based on cultures • Challenging the logic of biological determinism • Saying that men and women are a certain way because it all boils down to our biology The Predominant gender story: • The story of 2 genders that take up specific roles • Helps us explain how gender norms are ideological • How ideas are produced as common sense and taken for granted  not challenged at all • They are taught to us and we produce them throughout our lives • Bodies are born in 2 types: male and female o Biological basis of the story o Can be challenged when people are born with 2 genders/transgendered  Male bodies  Mermes (more male)  Intersexed  Fermes (more female)  Female bodies • Bodies are gendered masculine and feminine • Enter the process of ongoing gendering • Oppositely gendered bodies will be attracted to each other o Challenged by people that are queer • Pairing and attraction will lead to reproduction of bodies and gender o Challenged by people that don’t reproduce • We see it in fairy tales (made feminine and gets a prince), adult comedies • Borderwork  the many sanctions of people who do not conform to any of these steps of the logic and praise the people that do o We benefit when we follow this logic Benefits Sanctions o You feel like you fit in o Isolation/loneliness o Celebrations o Anti-gay policies (policies to o Family make you more of an outcast) o Cultural traditions o Gender bullying o Social welfare programs that endorse this logic o Income tax o Spousal benefits • Gives you the option of 2 oppositional distinct measures Dichotomous thinking: • Refers to the idea of binary opposites (black/white, male/female, heterosexual/homosexual) • Binaries are not equal in power • Gender is to be oppositional • Understand the logic of male supremacy  men in general are more capable and more deserving • These binaries are not stable • Not inherent Gender dichotomies: Men Women • Rational • Emotional • Physically strong • Physically weak • Gain wisdom with age • Lose sex appeal with age • Independent • Dependent • “Report talk” • “Rapport talk” • Hegemonic Masculinity • Emphasized Femininity • Infantilizing women  depicting women as children Women in Reality TV From Jennifer Pozner (2010) • Catty, Edited & Manipulative: constant trope that women are two faced and are always backstabbing each other. What is the benefit of portraying women this way? • Stupid: men only enter shows to make fun of and correct the actions of the women; strengthens idea that women are dependent • Incompetent: women need help; Eg Super Nanny showing that women need help with mothering children; do not look at ideas like salaries • Gold Diggers; valued by sexual desire, and can only gain social status by being dependent on a man Masculinity Studies • “Qualitatively different types (of masculinity) are produced within the same social setting” (Connell 1995/ 2011, p.356) • Types of masculinity form a HIERARCHY: not all men have the ability to be a part of the hierarchy; based on class, income, race, and sexual orientation • ‘White men have more power, working men have more power than non-working men’ • Differences not a matter of FREE CHOICE • Differences created by race, ethnicity, class, age, sexual orientation The “Tough Guise” Jackson Katz on Violent Masculinities • Ideals of masculinity may be dangerous • Disadvantages include: risking their lives, men are supposed to be strong and therefor do not go to the doctor as often resulting in physical risks, aggressiveness causes fighting The Patriarchal Dividend • “The advantage of men as a group from maintaining an unequal gender order” (Connell 2002: 142) • Consider: The Guyet: calling it a diet feminizes the idea; strengthens the idea of women should be thin • Patriarchy: refers to rule of the father; living in a patriarchal society means that we are living in a male dominated society • Prefered: When you line up all ideal characteristics
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