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SOC 107 Study Guide - Final Guide: Double Consciousness, Gift Card, Online Dating Service

Course Code
SOC 107
Alan Sears
Study Guide

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SOC107 Study Guide for Final (revised)
The final exam for SOC 107 will have essay-style and multiple choice questions. You will
answer two essay style questions (choosing two out of three options) and 30 multiple choice
questions. The essay-style questions will count for 70% of the exam grade (35% each) and the
multiple choice questions will count for 30%.
Macro-sociological investigation: Social science research that centers attention on the ways
social structures function or society as a whole operates
Macro world: The broader institutional and historical setting in which people’s daily lives take
place. Relations with others in this world are more abstract, anonymous, and remote according to
Peter and Brigitte Berger.
Micro-sociological investigation: Social science research that centers attention on the ways in
which people’s daily, face-to-face communications are organized
Micro world: The world of everyday, direct face-to-face relations between individuals
Check List of Key Concepts for Multiple-Choice Study
people as active sense-makers
-The essence of constructivism is that people are active sense-makers who are
continually assessing their environment and acting according to the ways in which
they interpret the situation
normal as a social convention
-Norms are largely social conventions (unspoken agreements between people)
-Those who closely follow social conventions appear more normal
power vs. authority
-Power vs authority (Weber)
-Power: consequences/cohesion
-Authority: respect/knowledge/trust/consent (hegemony)
different forms of power
-Smith- the invisible hands of the market
-Marx- classes of power (capitalist and working class)
-Foucault- the power to define/create categories
investigating “the centre”
language and human meanings
-Language as an aspect of human culture
-Symbols in a system of representation
-The way we understand one thing, is based on our understandings of other things,
because it’s all apart of a system of representation
micro and macro level analysis
social science as a way of knowing
-Deliberate frames in sociology, in which you can consciously switch frames, but
not in everyday life.
-Positivism vs interpretivism
Different ideas of how we know and how knowledge works
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Positivism: Assumption that all types of sciences operate using the same
methods. Science is essentially about objectively capturing sense data
Interpretivism: meanings. We should use different methods to study the
universe. We know nothing objectively.
-Systems of classification (theory – framing)
We want to ask questions about every classification we have
-Rules of evidence (research method)
This course is more interpretivism, it is a choice, not the only way to
3 premises of symbolic interaction
1. Human beings all act toward things or situations on the basis of the
meanings that the things or situations have for them
2. These meanings are derived from or arise out of the social interactions
individuals have with others
-“The meaning of a thing for a persons grows out of the ways which
other people act towards the person in regards to the thing”
3. These meanings are handled or modified through the interpretive process
used by individuals in dealing with the things or situations they encounter
the looking glass self
-The looking-glass self - Cooley (I am not what I think I am, I am not what you
think I am, Rather I am what I think you think I am)
roles in symbolic interactionism
-Just as symbolic communication requires an audience to which communications
can be directed, so is the self formed and transformed with interaction with others.
labelling theory
-Labeling theory is the theory of how the self-identity and behaviour of individuals
may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them. It
is associated with the concepts of self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping
moral career
-Process in which a person's identity and moral status are progressively changed.
impression management
-is a goal-directed conscious or subconscious process in which people attempt to
influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object or event; they do
so by regulating and controlling information in social interaction
commodity and commodity fetishism
-It is the perception of the social relationships involved in production, not as
relationships among people, but as economic relationships among the money and
commodities exchanged in market trade. As such, commodity fetishism
transforms the subjective, abstract aspects of economic value into objective, real
things that people believe have intrinsic value.
bio-power (Foucault)
-For Foucault, biopower is a technology of power for managing people as a large
group; the distinctive quality of this political technology is that it allows for the
control of entire populations. It is an integral feature and essential to the workings
of—and makes possible—the emergence of the modern nation state and
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