What is popular culture?
Culture tradition passed down from generation to generation; or based on distance past relitive.
1) Capital C culture
- Going to the opera - country clubs (members only) - theater event
The focuses on what we usually think of as high end creative production
2) Way of life
- What people do; a mean of practice > the practice that defines who we are
Mass media as a corrupting force
Was founded on the principle of making money
Popular latin from the word popularis which means of or belonging to the people used to describe something that is
like by a lot of people
- number of people
- size of audience
- amount of tickets sold
- VERY MARKET DRIVEN
Ex. Forbes release a list of Hollywood stars for this year
2) of the people
- whats going in our idea
- The grass roots
- Appealing to the mass audience
Is success only being defined in economic terms?
Three main components of popular culture
consumption and production
Popularity is measured by the patterns of consumption it refers to the things we buy.
- what we watch, what we eat, what we listen to.
folk culture (identifiable- tradition) and mass culture (unidentifiable- for the mass audience )
Refers to those cultures products and practices that have been devolved over time within a particular or socially
identifiable group, and that is passed down from generations amongst family
i.e the relationship of power.
- the ability to produce and purchases assess in culture
e.g. Ipod with types of things choose your own music power
restrictions > space and itune music
Political Economy and Cultural Studies
the study of the social relations, particularly the power relations, that mutually constitute the production,
distribution, and consumption of resources (Mosco, 1996, p. 25)
Ownership and control:
a) within the mass media
- How the media structure is produced
- Shapes the type of product and content
b) beyond the mass media
- what takes place in border food shopping
- e.g. Ryerson gets Gould st. closed temporary shows control
cultural relations are the product of social, economic, and class relations
www.notesolution.com - social, economic, an class relations create cultural relations
- i.e profit and money making influences the type of message being enforced
- lines between products and services become blurred
- why of thinking about economy theoretical
- thin line between C- culture and other ways
- type of media blurred in communication
- e.g tiff- donations of space by bell.
lines between products and services become blurred
- Ted Rogers > media empire (ownership) > gives money to ryerson (public institution) > different industries converge
3 Types of Convergence (Babe, 1996)
technical made possible transmission
emphasis is on services and products rather than transmission
- Hybrid services
- Black barnes
Cultural Studies and Popular Culture
identity, subjectivity, and interpretation of meaning
challenges the view of structure/ economic identity subjectivity and interpretation meaning.
- How we the audience interpret
Four Characteristics of Cultural Studies
1) dominant culture
- Ideologies ways and idea we used to think about reality common sense
- Discourses how ideological work is preformed (Foucault) express through language inclusion and exclusion
ways and ideas we use to think about reality
discourses (Foucault, 1980)
how ideological work is performed
2) interdisciplinary focus
3) emphasis on connections
4) emphasis on the subjective
we are the story
become a part of the popular culture
Culture wars and the Politics of Popular Culture
Relationship of power in control
Politic > people making claim
The function of culture
www.notesolution.com Example 1 rich galas and ordinary citizens
Who should say what culture is
- Glass roots vs. C. culture
e.g long gun registration
urban people (for) v.s rural people (against)
the function of culture ( education vs money)
what should taxpayers money go into Canadian events (juno awards) when many Canadians do not watch Canadian
Want funding from government. Ordinary citizens may not want to have it funded, do not care about it
Example 2 Tim Hortons vs. Starbucks
needs + desires = products
symbolic and emotional meaning attached to consumption
Emphasizes customer experiences
Targets middle upper middle class
Down to earth experience of drinking coffee, everyday, ordinary
Targets middle, working class consumer
Why study popular culture?
1) the influence of social and political change
2) ubiquity of popular culture
4) power and pleasure
Historical Overview of the Field of Popular Culture and Media Effects
> Are you passive or critical/ or more active
popular culture interpretation
1) culture as folk culture - created by the people
2) culture as mass culture - mediated to large audience
3) culture as mass consumption - what we buy, listen to, and eat
4) culture as the everyday - what we do
Hegemony (Gramsci, 1981)
- groups who had lose their power maintain there power over citizens.
believe we are not passive individual we are actually active.
Hegemony interoperation of test is a complicated relation with receiver and messenger
We are not brainwashed. We are not passive.
www.notesolution.com The communication and interpretation of cultural messages involves acceptance and consent
- how were the poor influenced by government (way ppl can be dominated)
1) Use of force
2) use of ideology (particular ways to view the social world) in major civil institutions (existed in the
major social institutions)
therefore hegemony is....
- Hegemony = they were also able to influence the audience, therefore you accept the statements. it become
overwhelming and therefore come to accept/understand. ie. tuition cost rising however nothing to do about it.
groups with no power accept/consent to being dominated by dominant groups.
Example: Defining the popular as what makes profit
- we only hear the best reviews, the hype of the review. the way we tend to define pop culture. are the things we have
access to. Only in term that makes money ie movies.
Example: television program the ideology (story) if its on tv ppl want to watch it... what if it not on television? we
accept it... powerless to do anything about it.
Interpellation (Althusser, 1971)
- french philosopher, how it is ppl interoperate certain text. text interpolate us
Interpellation has to do with what cultural text do to us. refers the process that occurs when culture text calls to our
culture subjectivity. ie. listening to a song and like the song.
What cultural texts do
Conditioning (the creation of subjects)
- the way in which we behave, what we like and take interest in....
- Althusser says we are brainwashed/ conditioned.
what attracts you to a certain item, something about that song that gets your attention/ connection.
Example: your favourite television show or cultural product
Culture is class and capital: A look at Bourdieu (1984)
capital- culture is class capital > culture is a constant process > Marxist -
prior and after the industrial rev.
subjective that only affect us when reading txt is according to class
Bourdieu ideology: how dominate classes maintained there positions.the difference in classes
Bourdieu builds his theory of cultural production his own characteristic theoretical vocabulary of habitus, capital and
- determines everything-
Class as a determining factor
- simplistic way of looking at culture. rich (money) had access to everything.poor could not get access to anything.
- as a marxist. how can I explain whats going on here.
Capital (currency) : economic, social, and cultural
- the class that we are born into determines economic, so