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SOC 202
Nicole Neverson

Week 2 General Themes What is popular culture? Culture tradition passed down from generation to generation; or based on distance past relitive. 1) Capital C culture - Going to the opera - country clubs (members only) - theater event The focuses on what we usually think of as high end creative production 2) Way of life - What people do; a mean of practice > the practice that defines who we are Mass media as a corrupting force Was founded on the principle of making money Popular latin from the word popularis which means of or belonging to the people used to describe something that is like by a lot of people 1) quantity - number of people - size of audience - amount of tickets sold - VERY MARKET DRIVEN Ex. Forbes release a list of Hollywood stars for this year 2) of the people - whats going in our idea - The grass roots - Appealing to the mass audience Is success only being defined in economic terms? Three main components of popular culture consumption and production Popularity is measured by the patterns of consumption it refers to the things we buy. - what we watch, what we eat, what we listen to. folk culture (identifiable- tradition) and mass culture (unidentifiable- for the mass audience ) Refers to those cultures products and practices that have been devolved over time within a particular or socially identifiable group, and that is passed down from generations amongst family 3) power i.e the relationship of power. - the ability to produce and purchases assess in culture e.g. Ipod with types of things choose your own music power restrictions > space and itune music Political Economy and Cultural Studies the study of the social relations, particularly the power relations, that mutually constitute the production, distribution, and consumption of resources (Mosco, 1996, p. 25) Ownership and control: a) within the mass media - How the media structure is produced - Shapes the type of product and content b) beyond the mass media - what takes place in border food shopping - e.g. Ryerson gets Gould st. closed temporary shows control Marxist roots cultural relations are the product of social, economic, and class relations - social, economic, an class relations create cultural relations - i.e profit and money making influences the type of message being enforced - Legitimizing Convergence - lines between products and services become blurred - why of thinking about economy theoretical - thin line between C- culture and other ways - type of media blurred in communication - e.g tiff- donations of space by bell. lines between products and services become blurred - Ted Rogers > media empire (ownership) > gives money to ryerson (public institution) > different industries converge together 3 Types of Convergence (Babe, 1996) technical made possible transmission digitization 2) functional emphasis is on services and products rather than transmission - MULTIMEDIA - Hybrid services - Black barnes 3) corporate Cultural Studies and Popular Culture identity, subjectivity, and interpretation of meaning challenges the view of structure/ economic identity subjectivity and interpretation meaning. - How we the audience interpret Four Characteristics of Cultural Studies 1) dominant culture - Ideologies ways and idea we used to think about reality common sense - Discourses how ideological work is preformed (Foucault) express through language inclusion and exclusion ideologies ways and ideas we use to think about reality common-sense discourses (Foucault, 1980) how ideological work is performed 2) interdisciplinary focus 3) emphasis on connections 4) emphasis on the subjective we are the story become a part of the popular culture Culture wars and the Politics of Popular Culture Culture wars Relationship of power in control Politic > people making claim The function of culture Example 1 rich galas and ordinary citizens Who should say what culture is - Glass roots vs. C. culture e.g long gun registration urban people (for) v.s rural people (against) the function of culture ( education vs money) what should taxpayers money go into Canadian events (juno awards) when many Canadians do not watch Canadian award shows. Want funding from government. Ordinary citizens may not want to have it funded, do not care about it Example 2 Tim Hortons vs. Starbucks commodification needs + desires = products commodity fetishism symbolic and emotional meaning attached to consumption Starbucks High class Emphasizes customer experiences Targets middle upper middle class Highly educated Tim Hortons Middle class Down to earth experience of drinking coffee, everyday, ordinary Targets middle, working class consumer Why study popular culture? 1) the influence of social and political change 2) ubiquity of popular culture 3) identity 4) power and pleasure Week 3 Historical Overview of the Field of Popular Culture and Media Effects > Are you passive or critical/ or more active popular culture interpretation 1) culture as folk culture - created by the people 2) culture as mass culture - mediated to large audience 3) culture as mass consumption - what we buy, listen to, and eat 4) culture as the everyday - what we do Hegemony (Gramsci, 1981) - groups who had lose their power maintain there power over citizens. believe we are not passive individual we are actually active. Hegemony interoperation of test is a complicated relation with receiver and messenger We are not brainwashed. We are not passive. The communication and interpretation of cultural messages involves acceptance and consent - how were the poor influenced by government (way ppl can be dominated) 1) Use of force 2) use of ideology (particular ways to view the social world) in major civil institutions (existed in the major social institutions) therefore hegemony is.... - Hegemony = they were also able to influence the audience, therefore you accept the statements. it become overwhelming and therefore come to accept/understand. ie. tuition cost rising however nothing to do about it. groups with no power accept/consent to being dominated by dominant groups. Example: Defining the popular as what makes profit - we only hear the best reviews, the hype of the review. the way we tend to define pop culture. are the things we have access to. Only in term that makes money ie movies. Example: television program the ideology (story) if its on tv ppl want to watch it... what if it not on television? we accept it... powerless to do anything about it. Interpellation (Althusser, 1971) - french philosopher, how it is ppl interoperate certain text. text interpolate us Interpellation has to do with what cultural text do to us. refers the process that occurs when culture text calls to our culture subjectivity. ie. listening to a song and like the song. What cultural texts do Conditioning (the creation of subjects) - the way in which we behave, what we like and take interest in.... - Althusser says we are brainwashed/ conditioned. what attracts you to a certain item, something about that song that gets your attention/ connection. Example: your favourite television show or cultural product Culture is class and capital: A look at Bourdieu (1984) capital- culture is class capital > culture is a constant process > Marxist - prior and after the industrial rev. subjective that only affect us when reading txt is according to class Bourdieu ideology: how dominate classes maintained there positions.the difference in classes Bourdieu builds his theory of cultural production his own characteristic theoretical vocabulary of habitus, capital and field Cultural tastes - determines everything- Class as a determining factor - simplistic way of looking at culture. rich (money) had access to everything.poor could not get access to anything. - as a marxist. how can I explain whats going on here. Capital (currency) : economic, social, and cultural - the class that we are born into determines economic, so
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