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Final

Midterm and Final Exam notes

10 pages31 viewsSummer 2011

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 202
Professor
Carmen Schifellite
Study Guide
Final

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-Representation – truthinesschain of association make false statements sound like common
-Capitalismsupply and demand
-Mythology – context, chain of association support dominant val = naturalize
-Ideology – false statements sound like truth/ common sense = naturalize = power
-Hegemony – framing reality w/ dominat ideas unequal distribution of power = naturalize
-
Chapter 6: Identity and Body
-Identity
-Constructed
-seem natural
-Representation sense naturalized = power
-ideological force that prescribes roles through signs
-Subculturecreate resistant identities
-Essentialist idnety is unchanging
-grounding in nature = truth unquestionable
-social constructivistidenty constructed in culture and politics
-Gender, Sexual Orientation and Race as markers of identity and social power
-differences = cultural meanings that in turn have material effects
-Decartesinseparability of mind and body
oPerception in line with role of choice in consumer society
oidentity & agency – capacity to shape own live to produce power and pleasure
-Nature vs. nurture – birth vs. envir shape personality
-Freud:
oselves articulate constructions
opsychoanalysisidentity dev for indiv integration in society
o1) recognition of sexual diff imposes social meaning on early desires: gender role
o2) acquisition of lang symbol mediates channel of desire into acceptable sexual
orientation and gender identity
oOedioal conflictproper” gender identification and sexual orientation
oRepression = mechanism that shaped identiy while concealing it own origins f/ it
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-Marx
o Identity = mythical armour coping with needs & desires & the social economy
oConceal interests though representation as natural
oAcceptance of naturalness of capitalist order
oAll not equal
oRealation to means of production
Capitalist - own means of production (land and capital) = power
Working - sell labour to owners in order to earn enough to survive
o
-Althusser
o Ideology reproduced through ideological state apparatuses like schools & the media
oImpossible of liberating identity f/ ideology
o interpellation - identify with the social roles offered to them
oCompliance through recognition/ identification w/ role
-Lacan: The Mirror Stage child identifies w/ image
-Socialization patriarchal & capitalist society prescribes what possible
-Capitalist society and social hierarchy = influ
-Foucault
o Identity social structures = power
imaginary
realimpacts: laws
oIndividualismlaws relate to private property, freedom of expression, human rights
Identity becomes something that we cannot do without
oPower
circulates throughout society
unequally distributed
fluidity & ambiguity of effects
regulations
oDiscourses - systems structure practices
Capitalism undermines social order
oDisciple includes:
Unconscious internalization of ideas & values natural
Knowledge: consequences through institutions that have a material reality
-Panopticon: constant surveillance
oself-construction = power in controlling
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oawareness of the body
Bourdieu:
o Forms of Capital
PhysicalThe Body – Eg. Athletes convert PC into EC
Economic - Money
Cultural - Education
Social Social Networks
oHabitus
way social differences are reproduced
Learned habits influencing lifestyle choices
-Feminist theories:
-in-relation-to the category of man
- performativity – performance of sex & gender identity following assigned social roles
social setting restricts improvisations
masculine, feminine
-Feminist position on Hegemonic Masculinity
Mythic Representation
Myth stabilizes gender inequalities
Tomboyallowance to go through phase assumption will be feminine in end
Norma Rae”
Silence of the Lambs
Fargo (Marge)
-Stratifiaction Theory
oa ladder = Measuring Social class
Prestige: respect occupation holds in society
Esteem: reputation earned within an occupation
-Sex, Gender, Sexual Orientation
oSex - biological (genetics, hormones)
oGender - social identiies socially constructed
Gender roles - expectations regarding = performance of masculine and feminine
oGender as PerformanceTough Guise
oagents of socialization = parents, mass media, = influ
-Heteronormativity
oSex & Gender tied to Sexual Orientation
o normal= heterosexual = representation
o Friends Clip: The Nanny
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