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Final Exam note

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Ryerson University
SOC 202
Carmen Schifellite

Chapter 6: Identity and Body Relationship b identity, behavior, and biology Identity and genetics: parents and children Representation Subculture create resistant identities Essentialist unchanging meaning that comes f politics and culture through history and nature o Made to seem natural Social constructivist cultural and political circumstances identities produced o Identity as something inherent in ppl express broader social relations = power o Naturalized biology and nature explain who we are political and social forces Ideological force inserts us into roles wout any control Descartes inseparability of mind and body o Society tells to self enhance o Perception in line with role of choice in consumer society o Gender, sexual orientation, race = markers of identity and social power culture and physicality unequal pressures and opp for self definition o Identity and agency capacity to shape own lives to produce power Indiv w psychological needs and preferences Survival of society by prescribed roles through family, class Nature vs. nurture birth vs. envir shape personality Freud psychoanalysis identity dev for indiv integration in society o Identities produced to manage chaotic fears o Beg of socialization marked by mgmt of impulses to the other o 1) recognition of sexual diff imposes social meaning on early o 2) acquisition of lang symbol mediates channel of desire into acceptable sexual orientation and gender identity o Identification recognition of similarity b self and other that inspires o Oedioal conflict proper gender identification and sexual orientation o Civilization demands repress socially unacceptable fears and desires cant be articulated make stability for gender identification and heterosexual orientation precarious o Identity = constructed to control chaotic drives that cant be o Identity over determined by patriarchal, capitalist culture o Repression = mechanism that shaped identiy while concealing it own origins f it Marx identity = mythical armour ppl put to cope w gap b needs and desires and social ecn = ideology o Conceal interests though representation as natural o Ideology secure acceptance by promoting a belief in the naturalness of the capitalist order and in the freedom of the individual within it Althusser institutions (schools, unis) role in shaping indiv and society o Impossible of liberating identity f ideology o Interpellation indiv compelled to identify w social roles offered to them, take up assigned place Lacan mirror stage childs recog of himself as separate being o Misrecognition child sees stable unifed fig when sensations uncoordinated o Promise of wholeness Globalization challenge conventional ideas of masculinity in NA Industry offshore feminization of labour loss of wages and job security Natural = white middle class male authority Faludi men suffer as they move away f production to consumption = shopping (girlie) Hegemonic model of masculinity = amorality and aggression Realism of films increase identification w characters and unquestioning acceptance of conventions they embody Perfomativity challenge assumption of natural connection b biological sex, sexual orientation, and gender o Enactment of masculine and feminine identities o Mythology naturalizes it Selves reproduce socially prescribed roles
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