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Final Exam note

Course Code
SOC 202
Carmen Schifellite
Study Guide

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Chapter 6: Identity and Body
Relationship b/ identity, behavior, and biology
Identity and genetics: parents and children
Subculture create resistant identities
Essentialistunchanging meaning that comes f/ politics and culture through history and nature
oMade to seem natural
Social constructivistcultural and political circumstances identities produced
oIdentity as something inherent in ppl express broader social relations = power
oNaturalized biology and nature explain who we are political and social forces
Ideologic al forc e inserts u s into roles w/o u t any co n trol
Desc artes inseparability of min d an d b o d y
oSociety tells to self en h anc e
oPerc e ption in line wit h role of ch oic e in co n sumer society
oGen d er, sex u al orientatio n, ra c e = markers of identity an d social p o wer
cult ure an d p hysic ality u n eq u al pres s ures an d o p p for self
oIdentity and agency c a pa ci ty to shape own lives to pro d u c e p ower
Indiv w/ p sych olo gic al n e e ds an d preferenc e s
Survival of society by prescribed roles thro u g h family, clas s
Nature vs. n urture birth v s. envir shape p erso n ality
Freu d p sych o analysis identity d ev for indiv integration in society
oIdentities pro d u c e d to manage chaotic fe ars
oBeg of socializ a tion marked by mgmt of imp ulses to the o ther
o1) rec ognition of sex u al diff imp o ses social me a nin g o n e a rly
o2) a c q uisition of lan g symb ol mediates chan n el of d esire into
a c c e ptable sex u al orientatio n an d g en d er identit y
oIdentific a tio n re c o g nition of similarity b/ self an d o ther that inspires
oOedioal co nflict pro p er g en d er identification an d sex u al orientation

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oCivilization de mands repress socially unacceptable fears and desires 
cant be articulated make stability for gender identification and
heterosexual orientation precarious
oIdentity = constructed to control chaotic drives that cant be
assimilated to society
oIdentity over determined by patriarchal, capitalist culture
oRepression = mechanism that shaped identiy while concealing it own
origins f/ it
Marx identity = mythical armour ppl put to cope w/ gap b/ needs and
desires and social ecn = ideology
oConceal interests though representation as natural
oIdeology secure acceptance by promoting a belief in the naturalness of
the capitalist order and in the freedom of the individual within it
Althusser institutions (schools, unis) role in shaping indiv and society
oImpossible of liberating identity f/ ideology
oInterpellation indiv compelled to identify w/ social roles offered to
them, take up assigned place
Lacan mirror stage childs recog of himself as separate being
oMisrecognition child sees stable unifed fig when sensations
oPromise of wholeness
Globalization challenge conventional ideas of masculinity in NA
Industry offshore feminization of labour loss of wages and job security
Natural = white middle class male authority
Faludi men suffer as they move away f/ production to consumption =
shopping (girlie)
Hegemonic model of masculinity = amorality and aggression
Realism of films increase identification w/ characters and unquestioning
acceptance of conventions they embody
Perfomativity challenge assumption of natural connection b/ biological sex,
sexual orientation, and gender
oEnactment of masculine and feminine identities
oMythology naturalizes it
Selves reproduce socially prescribed roles

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Representing gender norms to excess draw attention to artificiality
Gender style clothes
Capacity to play w/ gender depends on social position (race, culture, and
Foucault identity defined through pwr constrains and produces social
oPower circulates contin through society w/ meanings and identities
oPwer unequally distributed
oPower shapes society productively pwer takes form of regulation and
oMiddle class for m of wealth, freedom and social discipline
oUnconscious internalization of ideas, val rep as natural
oKnowledge by rules
oInstitution reproduction of social hierarchy self regulation and mgmt
oTechnologies of the self modes of conscious self construction to
naturalize systems of social power awareness of body, who in
control, and power
oSexuality unified collection of fantasies and behav not natural
foundation of human identity
Product as obj of discourse
oHomosexuality form of sexual deviance
Object of knowledge
oRegulatory fiction social control drawing distinction b/ normal and
deviant identities
Punishment enforce social conformity
Heightened focus on body, social regulation and discipline laws
Summary: Identity
oindiv f/ complex social structures esp who is situated
ohistorically specific context of social and ecn situ
oimaginary ideologically constructed
oreal constructs have consequences in law, beliefs
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