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Final

Final Exam note

10 Pages
100 Views
Summer 2011

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 202
Professor
Carmen Schifellite
Study Guide
Final

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Chapter 6: Identity and Body
Made up, constructed
Made to seem natural
Representation and production of identity
Subculturecreate resistant identities
Essentialist idnety is unchanging and transcends culture and politics
grounding in nature and history = truth unquestionable
posit identity as an unchanging core of meaning that transcends culture & is grounded in nature
social constructivistidentities produced in cultural and political circumstances
emphasize the cultural & political circumstances in which identities are produced
identity as an ideological force that inserts us into particular roles through signs
Gender, Sexual Orientation and Race as markers of identity and social power culture vs. physicality
Physical differences are invested with cultural meanings that in turn have material effects
The relationship between identity & agency is a critical issue
Identity prescribed by role one occupied in the institutions of the family, church, class hierarchy
Freud: the stable & coherent selves that we articulate to the world & to ourselves are constructions
Marxism: Identity could be understood as a kind of mythical armour people assumed as a way of coping
with the gap between their needs & desires & the social economy
Primary force in producing identity & consciousness is ideology
All selves are not created equal
Althusser : Ideology reproduced through ideological state apparatuses like schools & the media
oPeople are interpolated as subjectscompelled through a mix of individual,
psychological & social imperatives to identify with the social roles offered to them
oCompliance is not achieved through a system of rules, but through each individuals
recognition of, and identification with his or her role
oLacan : The Mirror Stage happens when a child sees itself in the mirror and identifies with
that image
oSocialization into a patriarchal & capitalist society prescribes & delimits what identities
are possible
oIt is both enabling & disabling
oThe extent of both depend on the place one is assigned in the social hierarchy
Foucault
Identity arises from complex social structures & relations of power
It is historically specific
Individualism & Sexual Orientation
It is imaginary & realconstructions have impacts
Identity becomes concretized in laws, institutions & practices
Individualismlaws relate to private property, freedom of expression, human rights
Identity becomes something that we cannot do without
He emphasizes the fluidity & ambiguity of the effects of power
Power is more nuanced than for Marx
Power circulates throughout society
It is unequally distributed
Emphasizes the fluidity & ambiguity of the effects of power
Power takes the form of regulations
It also takes the form of Discourses
Discourses are whole systems of thought speech, and knowledge-production that structure
institutional and social practices
Industrial Capitalism undermines the old social order
It creates a new middle class with new forms of wealth and freedom
These developments in turn require new forms of social discipline
Foucaults disciple includes:
www.notesolution.com
Unconscious internalization of ideas & values that come to be seen as natural & as
upholding “common sense”
This discipline refers to both methods of training” and to branches of knowledge
Knowledge for Foucault has material consequences as it is put into effect through
institutions that have a material reality
Examples: Hospitals, Schools, Prisons
The Panopticon: developed for prisons with the aim of giving prisoners the effect of being under constant
surveillance
This is the concrete model of a more general process in which individuals came to subject
themselves to a kind of social scrutiny
Individuals began to engage in a process of self-construction
Central to this process is an awareness of the body
Power is then all about controlling & managing bodies & the process of self-construction
Habitus
Connotes both Living space & habit
Way in which social differences are reproduced at the level of the individual body
Learned habits influencing lifestyle choices
Bourdieu: Forms of Capital
PhysicalThe Body – Eg. Athletes convert PC into EC
Economic - Money
Cultural - Education
SocialSocial Networks
Clip from “Working Girl
Feminist theories: The very notion of gender is shot through with ideology
Womens self-perception is fractured
Not autonomous or self-sufficient
It is always in-relation-to the category of man
Need to challenge this Ideology using the concept of performativity:
The enactment of sex & gender identity through the following of a script in the
performance of assigned social roles
Need to challenge this Ideology using the concept of performativity:
The enactment of sex & gender identity through the following of a script in the
performance of assigned social roles
However, need to acknowledge that the social setting strongly restricts & resists
improvisations
Feminist position on Hegemonic Masculinity
Mythic Representation
It is characterized by amorality, aggression, force & competence
This myth stabilizes gender inequalities
In reality there has been a feminization of labour
It is at odds with the circumstances of real men - Clip from The End of Men"
Norma Rae”
Clarice”Silence of the Lambs
Marge”Fargo”
Images of women
Use of Male authority figures
Showcasing & Containing
Small Stature w/ Intelligence & Determination
Not a Sex Object
Independent & Unthreatening
Traditional role
Masculinity: Competitive, Driving Force
Femininity: Reactionary, Naïve, Misinformed, Caring
www.notesolution.com
Karl Marx: Realation to means of production
Two classes in the modern world:
Capitalist (bourgeoisie) consists of those who own the means of production (land and
capital)
Working (proletariat): those who must sell their labour to the owners in order to earn
enough to survive
Stratifiaction Theory
Modern North American View
Social Class measured as a series of rungs on a ladder
Task is to measure those rungs using income, education, occupation or some other
variable
Depoliticized view of the relationships between the positions on the ladder
Measuring Social class
The Objective Method
Class largely viewed as a statistical category based on
Occupation
Education
Income
Place of residence
Job Status
Prestige: respect and admiration an occupation holds in society
Esteem: reputation specific person has earned within an occupation
Sex, Gender, Sexual Orientation
Sex: is a biological category based on genetics, hormones, primary & secondary sexual
characteristics & other biological phenomena
Gender: our basic social identities as men and women are socially constructed rather than based
on fixed biological characteristics
Gender roles: expectations regarding proper behaviour, attitudes, and activities of males and
females
Gender roles evident in work and in how we react to others
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 6: Identity and Body Made up, constructed Made to seem natural Representation and production of identity Subculture create resistant identities Essentialist idnety is unchanging and transcends culture and politics grounding in nature and history = truth unquestionable posit identity as an unchanging core of meaning that transcends culture & is grounded in nature social constructivist identities produced in cultural and political circumstances emphasize the cultural & political circumstances in which identities are produced identity as an ideological force that inserts us into particular roles through signs Gender, Sexual Orientation and Race as markers of identity and social power culture vs. physicality Physical differences are invested with cultural meanings that in turn have material effects The relationship between identity & agency is a critical issue Identity prescribed by role one occupied in the institutions of the family, church, class hierarchy Freud: the stable & coherent selves that we articulate to the world & to ourselves are constructions Marxism: Identity could be understood as a kind of mythical armour people assumed as a way of coping with the gap between their needs & desires & the social economy Primary force in producing identity & consciousness is ideology All selves are not created equal Althusser: Ideology reproduced through ideological state apparatuses like schools & the media o People are interpolated as subjects compelled through a mix of individual, psychological & social imperatives to identify with the social roles offered to them o Compliance is not achieved through a system of rules, but through each individuals recognition of, and identification with his or her role o Lacan: The Mirror Stage happens when a child sees itself in the mirror and identifies with that image o Socialization into a patriarchal & capitalist society prescribes & delimits what identities are possible o It is both enabling & disabling o The extent of both depend on the place one is assigned in the social hierarchy Foucault Identity arises from complex social structures & relations of power It is historically specific Individualism & Sexual Orientation It is imaginary & real constructions have impacts Identity becomes concretized in laws, institutions & practices Individualism laws relate to private property, freedom of expression, human rights Identity becomes something that we cannot do without He emphasizes the fluidity & ambiguity of the effects of power Power is more nuanced than for Marx Power circulates throughout society It is unequally distributed Emphasizes the fluidity & ambiguity of the effects of power Power takes the form of regulations It also takes the form of Discourses Discourses are whole systems of thought speech, and knowledge-production that structure institutional and social practices Industrial Capitalism undermines the old social order It creates a new middle class with new forms of wealth and freedom These developments in turn require new forms of social discipline Foucaults disciple includes: www.notesolution.com
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