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Final Exam note

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Ryerson University
SOC 202
Carmen Schifellite

Chapter 6: Identity and Body Made up, constructed Made to seem natural Representation and production of identity Subculture create resistant identities Essentialist idnety is unchanging and transcends culture and politics grounding in nature and history = truth unquestionable posit identity as an unchanging core of meaning that transcends culture & is grounded in nature social constructivist identities produced in cultural and political circumstances emphasize the cultural & political circumstances in which identities are produced identity as an ideological force that inserts us into particular roles through signs Gender, Sexual Orientation and Race as markers of identity and social power culture vs. physicality Physical differences are invested with cultural meanings that in turn have material effects The relationship between identity & agency is a critical issue Identity prescribed by role one occupied in the institutions of the family, church, class hierarchy Freud: the stable & coherent selves that we articulate to the world & to ourselves are constructions Marxism: Identity could be understood as a kind of mythical armour people assumed as a way of coping with the gap between their needs & desires & the social economy Primary force in producing identity & consciousness is ideology All selves are not created equal Althusser: Ideology reproduced through ideological state apparatuses like schools & the media o People are interpolated as subjects compelled through a mix of individual, psychological & social imperatives to identify with the social roles offered to them o Compliance is not achieved through a system of rules, but through each individuals recognition of, and identification with his or her role o Lacan: The Mirror Stage happens when a child sees itself in the mirror and identifies with that image o Socialization into a patriarchal & capitalist society prescribes & delimits what identities are possible o It is both enabling & disabling o The extent of both depend on the place one is assigned in the social hierarchy Foucault Identity arises from complex social structures & relations of power It is historically specific Individualism & Sexual Orientation It is imaginary & real constructions have impacts Identity becomes concretized in laws, institutions & practices Individualism laws relate to private property, freedom of expression, human rights Identity becomes something that we cannot do without He emphasizes the fluidity & ambiguity of the effects of power Power is more nuanced than for Marx Power circulates throughout society It is unequally distributed Emphasizes the fluidity & ambiguity of the effects of power Power takes the form of regulations It also takes the form of Discourses Discourses are whole systems of thought speech, and knowledge-production that structure institutional and social practices Industrial Capitalism undermines the old social order It creates a new middle class with new forms of wealth and freedom These developments in turn require new forms of social discipline Foucaults disciple includes:
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