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Chapter 9.docx

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SOC 202
Carmen Schifellite

Chapter 9: Management of Quality LO1: Introduction Quality – ability of good/service to consistently meet/exceed customer expectations - Integral part of good/service Evolution of Quality Management - Quality control – monitoring, testing and correcting quality problems after they occur o 100% inspection - Quality assurance – provide confidence that product’s quality will be good by preventing defects before they occur o During production process - Total quality management (TQM)- shift f/ quality control and assurance to a strategic mgmt. approach o Emphasis on customer satisfaction and involves all levels of mgmt. - Continuous mgmt. – never ending improvements to key processes as part of TQM - Six sigma – solving/process improvement Dimensions of Quality - Workmanship/ performance/ reliability/ special features - Dimension of quality of goods o Performance - characteristics and function o Aesthetics - appearance, feel, taste o Special features o Safety - reduction/elim risk o Reliability - consistency perform o Durability - long life o Perceived quality - reputation, image o Service after sale - warranties - Service quality o tangibles - physical appearance o convenience - avail o reliability - depend, consistently, accurately o responsiveness - help customers in unusual situations o time - speed o assurance - knowledge, trust, confidence o courtesy - way treat employees - relative to expectation → high than expected = good Determinants of quality 1. product design - starting pt for level of quality o characteristics and specs (size, shape, material) o quality = what customers req o quality function deployment - translate customer req to tech attributes of target val (specs) 2. process design - tech (product) characteristics translated to process characteristics and specs 3. production - conformance to design specs during production - degree to which produced goods/services conform to specs of designers o procedures, skills, training, monitoring, corrective actions, comm, verification (audit) Cos t of quality - failure cost - cost caused by defective parts/products - internal failures - failures discovered during production o reasons: defective material, incorrect method o costs: equip damage, scrap and rework, employee injury o related to poor quality - external failures - failures discovered after delivery to customer o defective product undetected by producer o costs: warranty, complaints, replacements, opp cost o related to poor quality - appraisal (detection) cost - cost of inspecting and testing → uncover defective products o investment for achieving good quality - prevention costs - cost of preventing defects f/ occurring o cost: quality planning, admin o investment for achieving good quality Quality gurus - W. Edwards Deming - improve productivity and quality o cause of inefficiency and poor quality f/ system o mgmt responsibility to correct system to achieve desired results o statistical process control (SPC) - reduce variation in output → distinguish special causes (correctable) and common causes (random) o mgmt challenge for quality: motivate workers to contribute collective effort to achieve common goal - Joseph M. Juran o 80% quality defects = controllable o quality mgmt = quality planning, quality control, quality improvement o contin improvement* o measure cost of quality o Steps: 1. build awareness for need and opp for quality improvement 2. set goals for improvement 3. org ppl to reach goal 4. provide training throughout org 5. carry out proj to solve prob 6. report progress 7. give recognition 8. comm results 9. keep score 10. m/ annual improvement part of regular system and processes - Armand Feignbaum o collection of tools/techniques o open work envir → cross functional teamwork o quality at the source - every employee is responsible for inspect own work - Philip B. Crosby o do it right the 1st time o zero defects - any level of defect too high and mgmt must install programs 1. top mgmt demonstrate commitment to quality and willingness to give support to achieve good quality 2. mgmt persistent in efforts to achieve good quality 3. mgmt spell out clearly terms of quality and what workers do to achieve it 4. make it/ do it right 1st time LO 2: International organization for standardization ISO 9001 international std for quality mgmt system critical international bus/ improve operating efficiency and productivity and reduce costs critical for companies internationally external on-site assessment by accredited auditors take 12-18 months problem identification and improvement doc created: - quality manual - procedures manual o critical processes of org - detailed work instructions and supporting doc LO 3: Hazard Analysis critical control point (HACCP) a quality mgmt system designed for food processors (meat) deals w/ food safety (biological, chemical, and physical hazards) inspects construction/sanitary aspects of equip and personnel shortcoming → corrective action procedure for product recall process background info req: 1. describe product - raw material,
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