Social learning: abused learns to abuse; only looking at physical manifestations. Feminist: doesn"t look at abuse; looks at power and control (theory, power exerted by abusing someone (sibling) who is less powerful to bolster own control and power. Social exchange / risk theory / social control / rational choice theory. Soc502 final exam: b/c expected fathers to be disciplinary, violent, emotionally-detached and mothers to be caregiving, nurturing therefore fathers were not recognized as abusive, but mothers are. Resource: about working class families families abuse when children challenge authority but abuse b/c families lack access to resources and support system. Social learning: predictor abused becomes abuser, abused as child, therefore abuse parents. Exchange (not social exchange: argues that when parents give up role of being parents, and when children are forced to take on parental role. Soc502 final exam: children abuse b/c they are put in situation of being overburdened, uses psychological concepts, out of anger, frustration; symptoms of being overburdened.