What is the traditional family?
Idealized family: nuclear patriarchal family, father as breadwinner and head of the
household (impossible for most of history).
What do right wing political groups argue about families today?
Divorce and diverse family forms (gay and single parents) are a threat to the family
What do pre-colonial aboriginal families look like?
Kin-ordered: everyone in the community was extended family.
MATRIARCHAL (female-headed), MATRILINEAL (always part of your mother's clan),
MATRILOCAL (groom lives in bride's community)
How did missionaries try to change aboriginal families?
Convert them to Christianity and patriarchy (giving men the power in families),
introduce male violence
How did aboriginal women resist this?
They refused to convert, refused to marry, or escaped.
What did European settler families look like?
Many settler men abandoned their families and married aboriginal women
What was the division of labour in European farming families?
Farming and domestic labour overlapped, men and women's labour roles were similar
because everyone's labour was necessary, including children's
Separation of private and public spheres
Industrialization started it required industrial labour- this divided labour spheres into
the public workforce and the private home sector
What were the implications for men and women of this separation?
Until ww2, what families could have a male breadwinners and a stay at home wife?
middle-class and up... working class women didn't have the luxury of staying home
How did residential schools destroy aboriginal families?
Children were taken from parents and very rarely allowed to see them. Siblings and
those from the same clan/community were separated and not allowed to associate
What were the causes the suffragettes fought for?
Women's (white middle class) right to vote, prohibition of alcohol
In the post ww2 era, why could white families get married at earlier ages?
They were more likely to be educated and have jobs earlier and be financially stable.
Why are there low marriage rates today?
More people are cohabiting common-law without marriage. People are marrying later
because they have to stay in school longer to get a decent job.
What is the division of domestic labour today?
Gendered division doesn't change even when women work, women just take on a
double shift, while male partners benefit.
When men participate in domestic labour, what exactly do they do?
Men do participate but they will choose to do only what they want, when convenient.
Men have the privilege of choice, but for women it is a responsibility.
What was the primary reason gay and lesbian couples fought for the right to marry? Benefits for same sex couples, medical/insurance etc, and the ability to legally be
recognized as partner's family. WANTING TO BE RECOGNIZED AS LEGAL PERSONS
What is the hidden curriculum?
The ideologies disseminated that are separate from the overt curriculum
Who had access to education in 18 century Canada?
Upper class and noble men
Why was the public school system created?
To educate and "civilize" new Canadians (immigrants), to train them to be good workes
Why did Ryerson think that girls should be educated, for what purpose?
Because it was the industrial age and there needed to be more qualified workers,
Opponents of women’s education argued what?
It would give women "huge brains and puny bodies".
Women who were admitted to higher education were subject to what?
Sexual harrassment, bullying, not being taken seriously.
What is the Chilly Climate?
Subtle ways that women are treated differently in classrooms and workplaces, including
How is male privilege embedded in the classroom?
Boys get called on more to answer questions, but girls get asked to help the teacher
more. Girls are more easily punished for behaviour that would be considered normal in
What is feminized work?
Jobs that are seen as extensions of traditional female gender roles, especially related to
domestic labour. Feminized work is not seen as skilled or "real work" because it is work
that women would do "naturally". It is often low wage and precarious.
What is the sticky floor?
Women get stuck in low wage feminized jobs with no room for upward mobility or
What is the glass ceiling?
Women who enter male dominated professions can make it to a certain point but will
never get promoted to the levels that men do, because of gender discrimination
What is the glass cliff?
the very few women who break through the ceiling experience the cliff- they become
the focus of negative attention, they get promoted but blamed for company failures.
Those who break though are publicly scrutinized.
What is the glass escalator?
when men are privileged in feminized work, get better positions and promotions
Why are women generally seen as unreliable employees?
It is assumed that they will leave work to raise children, or that they will be unable to
keep up when they do have children. Idea that women prioritize their domestic labour
over "real work". Women seen as being inflexible workers. What is the glass cellar?
men are discriminated against be