What were the sex wars?
Debates among feminists about sexuality and sexual activity of women, these sides were
characterized by anti-porn feminists and sex positive feminists, this debate occurred in 1982
at the Barnard Conference on sexuality in New York
Who were sex radical feminists
Second wave feminists who believed there was one way of sex- missionary and that it had
value, sex was for men.
Who were anti-sex lesbian essentialism
Political feminists, they were homophobic they feared any real pleasure and had nothing to
do with men
What was Adrianne riches notion of lesbian continuum?
The lesbian continuum is the overall range—through each woman's life and throughout
history—of woman-identified experiences, not simply the fact that a woman has had or
consciously desired genital sexual experience with another woman
Women experiences not just sex between women
What did Riche argue in her piece and about lesbian existence
First, Riche sees lesbian existence as an act of resistance to this institution, but also as an
individual choice, when in fact, the principles of radical lesbianism see lesbianism as
necessary, and consider its existence as necessarily outside of the heterosexual political
sphere of influence. Next that, "Lesbian Identity is the sense of self of a woman bonded
primarily to women who is sexually and emotionally independent of men
How did riche understand lesbianism?
That female sexual bonding is the only way that women experience women identification.
What did critiques argue about riches theory
Mostly third wavers who saw sexuality as something to be expressed and embraced`, those
opposing them labeled them as “sexuality radical
What does the social constructionist approach to sexuality argue
Is a body of study that examines the social systems that shape our shared understandings of
reality. In the circumstances of sexuality, our experiences hep shape our sexuality but also
our practices produced through regulation power and ideologies
What does the essentialism approach to sexuality argue?
Emerge as premises, the very basis for the claims being made, first gender essentialism
To be female you must have the right genital, most people are assuming sex and gender are
a priority in social life, sex and sexuality become historical, fixed or static, and pre-exist
social life. Basis for arguments being made, second is sex negativity, they assumed that sex
was a highly dangerous force it needed heavy regulation
What is heteronormativity
The normalization of all things heterosexual, through media and literature supressing all
other sexualities in question
What does Christine Overall argue about heterosexuality
Within heteronormativity, hetero sexuality is both compulsory and heavily regulated
What does Overall argue about the two paradoxes about heterosexuality First heterosexuality is so persuasive that is invisible as a system and socially constructed
Second there is a co-existence of both privilege and constant process of self-policing
What do LGBT critiques argue about same sex marriage (queer theorists)?
Was oppressive and a way to inflict heterosexual norms on same-sex couples, same sex
couples were not related to monogamy, and because they weren’t allowed to marry for so
long it was a heteronormative implication on same sex couples
How did the term queer start to be used in the 1980s?
An identity distinct from the gay identity, used within the gay community to disrupt words
and harms, it is a space of defiance and resistance, it is also used to refuse the shaming of
queen communities inside those communities
The beauty myth
What is the male gaze
John Burckers notion, patriarchal gaze, western heterosexual, objectifies the object
the way in which the visual arts and literature depict the world and women from a
masculine point of view
What technologies appear in the 19 century that amplify women’s image (dates) (1800s)
Mirrors and makeup to hide blemishes, bras, makeup and heels
In Victorian era who were painted ladies?
Portates of people, they didn’t have mirrors so that’s how they knew what they looked like
In 1920s how did men become experts in the beauty industry?
Men said they were experts in the science of beauty because they were experts in the male
gaze and knew what they wanted to see in women.
In the 1920-1930s what did doctors tell women to do that promoted beauty?
Maintain their youth, complexion, well-being, emotional being and physiological health
In the 1930s-40s what did doctors tell middle class mothers to do
It’s a mother duty to make sure you look good for your husband but make sure your
daughter appears to social construction of beauty, when you look good its emotional sign of
being good, mental illness and how you look, never too early to start your daughter on a
beauty regiment so your daughter could get boyfriend and then a future husband
In 1940s what did the beauty industry tell women to do?
To win the war, you need to stay beautiful and lovely for your husband, beauty important to
In the 1950s why were teenaged girls targeted by the beauty industry?
buy these products but don’t use them too heavily there are meant to emphasis, it was
written through heterosexual gaze, attracting a boyfriend and later a husband, they
reinforced the male gaze
What are the body projects that we have looked at?
Weight and how it has developed from being round is good from being very skinny and
having an eating disorder being ideal
Skin: being light was better but then being tan showed you could afford vacation
Hair and how having thick curly hair was associated with mental illness
How is obesity a social construction how do you hinder them from having a career, going to school it is how patriarchal systems
keep women down in you’re constantly hungry- there is a method behind it because there’s
no such thing as being too thin- the medical profession reproduces patriarchy through
weighing you and talking about it as a matter of health.
How does the skin project revile colonisation and sexism?
dark skin was associated with tans and serfs working in the fields, the western gaze was
how colonized peoples were superior, what things did colonized people look like, they
zeroed in on eye shape nose skin colour and lips, tanning was associated with servants
Violence against women
Violence against women is based in that social structures
Women’s lives are riddled with abuse, you are abused as a child, relationships with men, to
then elderly, violence never stop. Verbal emotional, physical, financial violence we are so
used to it we internalized patriarchy, we expect to be insulted and humiliated by men
How did biblical law allow violence against women?
Women are seen as being economically dis-contributed - even though she wasn’t an
economic burden, she did unpaid work very productive. Your father had a right to kill you,
sell you to slavery, any kid that was disabled was left out to die.