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all lecture notes for spring-2011 semester

Course Code
ARCH 131
Study Guide

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ARCH 131
Exams are lecture based
Office hours Tuesdays: 9 30 – 10 30 office 9643 in archaeology dept.
TA hours 9151 in saywell
9-10 Fridays
Michelle 1130 – 12 30 thursdays
Lecture 1
Anthropology subdivides: Cultural Anthropology - Study of living cultures
Archaeology – the study of past/extinct cultures
Physical/bio anthropology – study of human bio evolution
Linguistics – study of language
Biological anthropology
Studies human skeletal remains
Closely tied to cultural evolution
Culture is a response to biological changes
Early studies of the distant past
-Muslim Universities are the oldest schools
oSaved many books which created the basis of sciences
-Pre-Scientific Framework
oDictated by the church
oIrish Archbishop James Ussher
Created a bible ‘family tree which realized that the
world began in 4004 BC
God created all organisms exactly as we see them today
– no evolution
-Palaeontologists believed in constant change
-Found skeletal remains of humans which were ‘different from us
-Felderhofer Cave – original Neanderthal
oLooked at by Johann Fuhlrott and Hermann Shaaffhausen
oHS was familiar with the concepts of evolution and was active
in attempting to push for the accuracy of this theory
-Rudolf Virchow was against the ideology of evolution
Before biological anthro could be established three ideological changes were
1. understanding of the extreme age of the earth
study of sediments exposed the time necessary to form
mountains, etc.
oLaw of Uniformitarianism was a radical theory which
suggested that ancient geological conditions were the same as
those of today

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oCharles Lyell
Believed that the year was millions of years old –
extreme antiquity of the earth
2. Extreme Age of Human History
Boucher de Perthes
oSt Acheul 1841 – found ancient stone implements
which were man-made
oFought against the folk explanation for the flint
Fairy tools
Lightning strikes
Hugh Falconer was curious about Perthes’ article
oHe brought the findings back to England where they
were confirmed to be human artefacts
3. Mutability of Organisms (Evolution) – the changeability of organisms
oNaturalist who suggested a process of evolution and
a mechanism through which it would occur
oInheritance of acquired characteristics
George Cuvier
oFixity of Species – against Lamarck’s theory
oExplained things through religious contexts
oAnd was forced to fit biblical notions to
archaeological findings
Charles Darwin
oOn the Origin of Species (1859)
oExplained the mechanism by which the
evolutionary process worked
oNatural selection
Alfred Russel Wallace
oHad a similar theory to Darwin at around the same
Thomas Henry Huxley
oFought for Darwin’s ideas – “Darwin’s bulldog”
Early anthropological research focused on the missing link
-Eugene Dubois
oPithecanthropus (ape man) – founding Java

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oWas declared that the remains were too primitive to be the
missing link
-Arthur Keith/Marcellin Boule
oThought what made humans was the tall domed cranium and
upright posture and that these characteristics predated
oPiltdown Hoax
Fit their model perfectly
Was not actually a skeleton
oThe Broken Hill or Kabwe Skull
Found in Africa
First ‘Neanderthal skull found outside of Europe
-Raymond Dart
oTaung Child – Australopithecus africanus
oWas also shot down as too primitive – just another ape
-Davidson Black
oPeking Man – Sianthropus pekinensis
From Zhoukoudien China
Early homo erectus
-Louis Leakey (Leakey family)
oWorked in east Africa
Other direction of early biological anthropology research
Variation in the morphology of modern humans – why do we look like we do?
What are the adaptive reasons?
-concept of ‘race
-Survival of the fittest cultural diversity
oEuropeans on ‘top’ of survival? Political support for
-Links human physical variability and individual behaviour
oIdentifies a physical stereotype of a criminal based on bumps
on skull, deep set eyes, protruding forehead etc.
Biological Anthropology contribution to archaeology
-Skeletal Pathologies
oGreeks, Romans
oNutrition and nutritional stress
oSkeletal stress and abnormal bone growth
Developed through chronic stress from repetitive tasks
Allowed scientists to make reasonable assumption on
lifestyle, necessary survival tasks and place in society
(ie: archer, grain-grinder, physician etc)
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