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Arch 131 Final Review Notes

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Simon Fraser University
ARCH 131
Dennis Sandgathe

11 Archaic Homo - some form of H. erectus was in Europe by 1mya Orce, Spain Venta Micena – 1.6mya, old of the 3 but question whether bone is hominin or not, no stone tools Barranco Leon – 1.4mya, dated by various methods, small mammal bio-chronology, paleomagnetism (study of earth’s magnetic field in rocks) Fuente Nueve – 1.2 mya, most recent Atapuerca Hills, Spain - several caves where fossils and stone tools of earliest known Hominins in west Europe found - 1.2 mya Gran Dolina - 100 hominin bones fragments, 6 different individuals - radiometric dates and paleomagnetism suggest remains are 800-875kyo - but Gran Dolina has stone tools older layer from ~1mya Sima del Elefante - layer 9 mandible, 10 levels and 7m below the Brunhes Chron/Matuyama Chron boundary (780kya) - small mammals from level 9 are species dated 1-1.5mya How did they get to Europe? - between 1.25 mya and 800kya there was a major migration of fauna (animal life) out of Africa Later European Archaic Homo Fossils (500-200kya) - most in Homo heidelbergensis Mauer, Germany - based on one mandible, H. heidelbergensis - massive lover jaw with moderate-sized teeth - ~500kya Caune de l’Arago, France, on Mediterranean coast near Perpignan - filled with sediments, 450-100kya - found cranium, deformed post-depositional, 400kya Steinheim, Germany - Reg. No. 17230, cranial capacity 1150cc, ~300kya Petralona, Greece - robust, thick bones, almost identical to Kabwe, Africa - separate countries, widely distributed Sima de los Huesos (Ataperuca, Spain) - thousand hominin bones, >530kyo - 10 crania and 5500 skeletal fragments, MNI = 28 - at least 12 females and 8 males, one is <10 yo and 3 are >35 but majority adolescents/young adults - clearly ancestors of the later Neanderthals - double-arched browridge, mid-facial pragnathism (Neanderthal features) - similar to modern human cranial capacity, bit lower SH5 - mid-facial pragnathism - double arched, separate browridge - some might be immature, can be adult with big brains - widest part of crania part mid-way, but still pentagonal shape What can bones tell us? - 1. how the remains get there? living in the cave, poor access to cave, almost no stone tools, faunal remains not typical food - dragged by cave bears/lions? Carnivore tooth marks > 50% of bones but age profile remain =/= - possibly thrown into pit, attract preds., remove remains, or funeral/ritual - 2. What did they look like? Similar to modern humans - 5’8’’ males, 5’6’’ females but much more robust and muscular than modern humans - 3. Anything about their everyday behaviour? - pre dominantly right handed, implication for brain structure? - used teeth as tools, had arthritis of temporomandibular joint - they used toothpicks to clean teeth after eating, left scratches and grooves in molars, no cavities from Sima - 4. How healthy were they? – rdd nutritional stress - enamel hypoplasia (EH) 1/3 had it, interrupted-growth lines due to stress from nutrition - but coincides with age 3-4, transition to real food, overall quite healthy - SH 5 Miguelon – died from septicemia (blood poisoning), infection in jaw spread to eye - SH 4 Agamenon – ear canals closed off by bone growth, ear infection, deaf - 5. Evidence of violence? Many skulls had old head impact skulls - cave life, rocks falling, not precise on conclusion 12 Homo neanderthalensis - closest hominin relative genetically Earliest Discoveries - first human skeleton found, finding a number of such similar fossils proved that the were members of ancient population, not diseased moderns (1830-1930s productive for Neanderthal remains) Krapina, Croatia ‘finer-featured’ - fragmented, remains up to 80 individuals, 130kya - remains all fragmented (no complete skulls), lots of cut marks and burning, possible cannibalism La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France - found in 1908 complete skeleton, intentional burial, old man with arthritis, 50-60kya Le Moustier, France - 1908 and 1914 - adolescent and a neonate (infant) La Ferrassie, France ‘finer-featured’ - 1910-1934, initially 7 individuals, male, female, 2 children, 3 infants, 70kya Mount Carmel, Israel (3 Important sites) Tabun and Kebara [and Skhul] - 11 partial skeletons, most intentional burials - 2 Neandertal types: ‘’robust’’ form from Kebara 60-45kya ‘‘finer-featured’’ form from Tabun 120-150kya Shanidar Cave, Iraq - 1957-1961, 9 indivudals, 45-60kya, may have been buried with wild flowers Infant Neandertal remains: Pech de l’aze I, France - ~1 yo, not well dated Roc dee Marsal, France - 2-4 yo, 80kya Teshik-Tash, Uzbekistan - 1938-1939, 9-10yo boy, 70-100kya, found horns with burial Duration of Neanderthals? Sima de los Huesos, >500kya, not quite Neandertal but close (H. Heidelbergensis) Pontnewydd, Wales? – to 230kya, taurodontism (enlarged pulp of the molar) - Neanderthal geographic distribution mainly in Europe Neanderthal Adaptations? - Eurasion climatic conditions from 250-28kya were living in cold and harsh conditions - experienced interglacial periods but also experienced modern weather - sea levels fluctuate b/c of glacial periods, lived through 2 warm stages but usually in really harsh conditions Fire? - flint tools and animal bones found, charcoal was dark - but could’ve interpret as only made fire in warm temp, not in cold - possibly didn’t know how to make fire, when lightning occurs, humid and warm, if cold, dry Skeleton Morphology Post-Cranial Skeleton - Neanderthals were more robust (muscular) than modern humans - large muscle attachment locations, bowed bones = stronger muscles from stress - more conical shaped rib cage, random genetic drift or for internal organs - arms scapula enabled swing arms powerfully - apical tufts(spatulated), stronger hands over precision - ratio of tibia-femur are same in humans but Neanderthals have short tibias – crural index - said to reflect cold climate adaptions Bergmann’s rule: body mass tends to be greater in cold environments Allen’s rule: shorter appendages adaptive in cold climates - both conditions result in increased surface area, more effective prevent body heat loss Cranium - long narrow vault like H. erectus - mid facial pragnathism - no chin, retro-molar gap, occipital bun, browridge, small mastoid process - eye orbits are circular and have large nasal aperture - suprainiac fossa – small depression on the back of the skull pheomelanin – red and yellow pigment eumelanin – black and brow pigment 1. Neanderthals evolved in Europe from Archaic Homo 2. Neanderthals rarely left their European cul-de-sac, essentially a European species. 3. Seem to just disappear after 30kya – humans most likely outcompete them, mammoths 4. Neanderthals are not the ancestors of modern humans 5. Relationship between Neanderthals and modern humans? 1-4% Neanderthal DNA 13-1 Anatomically Modern Humans - catch-all category, first appear between 250-150kya - oldest AMH from Africa, everyone alive today member of Homo sapiens sapiens Cranium - woman generally more vertical forehead, little or no browridge - flat face but vary, can have pragnathism - point chin, large mastoid for muscle attachment, flatten face, housing teeth for smaller jaw - rectangular orbits, small nasal aperture Postcrania Morphology - taller than Neanderthals and Archaic Homo (H. heidelbergensis) - less robust than Neanderthals and Archaic Homo - cylindrical rib cage (not conical) - less spatulated apical tufts compared to Neanderthals Earliest Archaic Homo sapiens Fossils Florisbad, South Africa - cranial fragments recovered from a spring, ~250kya Omo Kibish, SW Ethiopia - 2 cinomplate crania, 4 mandibles, and assorted pieces - 195kya Herto Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia - most complete crania, high cranial vault, 160kya Jebel Irhoud, Morocco - long, low vault, Neandertal-like but more vertical forehead, flatter face, modern chin, 160kya Klasies River M
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