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ARCH 131 Final Exam Study Notes Condensed.xlsx

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ARCH 131
Dennis Sandgathe

Site Location Dating Finds Orce Spain 1mya stone tools, maybe skull fragments Ceprano Italy 800-900kya cranium, tools Gran Dolina Spain 800-875kya 100 bone fragments, tools Sima del Elefante Spain 1-1.5mya mandible Mauer Germany 500kya mandible Caune de l'Arago France 400kya cranium Steinheim Germany 300kya cranium Petralona Greece 300-200kya cranium Sima de los Huesos Spain >530kya 10 crania, 5500 other fragments Neanderthals: Site Location Date Found Finds Engis Cave Belgium 1893 young individual Forbes Quarry Gibraltar 1848 individual? Feldehofer Cave Germany 1856 type fossil Spy d'Oreau Belgium 1886 2 skeletons Krapina Croatia 1899 up to 80 individuals La Chapelle-aux-Saints France 1908 complete skeleton Le Moustier France 1908-1914 adolescent and neonate La Ferassie France 1910-1934 8 individuals Mout Carmel Israel ? 11 partial skeletons Shanidar Cave Iraq 1957-1961 9 individuals Roc de Marsal France ? 2-4 year-old Teshik-Tash Uzbekistan 1938-1939 9-10 year-old boy Pontnewydd Wales ? oldest Neanderthal fossils Mezmaiskaya Russia ? 1-2 week-old infant Vindija Cave Croatia ? mandible El Sidron Spain ? pigmentation gene Monti Lessini Italy ? pigmentation gene Denisova Cave Siberia 2008 mtDNA from finger bone Homo Sapiens: Site Location Dating Findings Jebel Irhoud Morocco 160kya cranium Herto Bouri Ethiopia 160-155kya 3 completeish crania Omo Kibish Ethiopia 195kya 2 incomplete crania, 4 mandibles Klasies River S. Africa 120kya 10 individuals, no complete crania Florisbad S. Africa 250kya cranial fragments Qafseh Israel 90-100kya 4 intentional burials Skhul Israel at least 10 individuals Mount Carmel Israel Quafseh, Skhul Grotte des Contrebandiers Morocco 100kya 8-10year-old Cro-Magnon France 27kya 5-8 individuals Pestera cu Oase Romania 36-41kya robust child Predmosti Moravia 30kya 18 people Wadjak Java ? ? Liujiang China 601-73kya Other not sure if fragments are human erectus-like; 1185cc; tools older than bones layer 6; also tools from before 1mya; paleomagnetism; h. erectus/heidelbergensis similar to hominins in Dmanisi; oldest well dated hominins from Europe defined heidebergensis; massive jaw 1100-1150cc, two separate arches instead of one supraorbita tarus 1150cc, flatter face than h.erectus, slightly more domed cranium one of the largest/thickest found, 1230cc at least 12 females and 8 males, majority between 11-20ya; "pit of the bones" ancestors of Neaderthals, 1125-1390cc, pentagonal skulls, reduced post orbital constriction healthy,
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