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all lecture notes for spring-2011 semester

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ARCH 131

ARCH 131 Exams are lecture based Office hours Tuesdays: 9 30 10 30 office 9643 in archaeology dept. TA hours 9151 in saywell 9-10 Fridays Michelle 1130 12 30 thursdays Lecture 1 Anthropology subdivides: Cultural Anthropology - Study of living cultures Archaeology the study of past/extinct cultures Physical/bio anthropology study of human bio evolution Linguistics study of language Biological anthropology Studies human skeletal remains Closely tied to cultural evolution Culture is a response to biological changes Early studies of the distant past - Muslim Universities are the oldest schools o Saved many books which created the basis of sciences - Pre-Scientific Framework o Dictated by the church o Irish Archbishop James Ussher Created a bible family tree which realized that the world began in 4004 BC God created all organisms exactly as we see them today no evolution - Palaeontologists believed in constant change - Found skeletal remains of humans which were different from us - Felderhofer Cave original Neanderthal o Looked at by Johann Fuhlrott and Hermann Shaaffhausen o HS was familiar with the concepts of evolution and was active in attempting to push for the accuracy of this theory - Rudolf Virchow was against the ideology of evolution Before biological anthro could be established three ideological changes were necessary 1. understanding of the extreme age of the earth study of sediments exposed the time necessary to form mountains, etc. o Law of Uniformitarianism was a radical theory which suggested that ancient geological conditions were the same as those of today o Charles Lyell Believed that the year was millions of years old extreme antiquity of the earth 2. Extreme Age of Human History Boucher de Perthes o St Acheul 1841 found ancient stone implements which were man-made o Fought against the folk explanation for the flint tools Fairy tools Lightning strikes Hugh Falconer was curious about Perthes article o He brought the findings back to England where they were confirmed to be human artefacts 3. Mutability of Organisms (Evolution) the changeability of organisms Lamarck o Naturalist who suggested a process of evolution and a mechanism through which it would occur o Inheritance of acquired characteristics (Lamarckianism) George Cuvier o Fixity of Species against Lamarcks theory o Explained things through religious contexts o And was forced to fit biblical notions to archaeological findings Charles Darwin o On the Origin of Species (1859) o Explained the mechanism by which the evolutionary process worked o Natural selection Alfred Russel Wallace o Had a similar theory to Darwin at around the same time Thomas Henry Huxley o Fought for Darwins ideas Darwins bulldog Early anthropological research focused on the missing link - Eugene Dubois o Pithecanthropus (ape man) founding Java o Was declared that the remains were too primitive to be the missing link - Arthur Keith/Marcellin Boule o Thought what made humans was the tall domed cranium and upright posture and that these characteristics predated Neanderthal o Piltdown Hoax Fit their model perfectly Was not actually a skeleton o The Broken Hill or Kabwe Skull Found in Africa First Neanderthal skull found outside of Europe - Raymond Dart o Taung Child Australopithecus africanus o Was also shot down as too primitive just another ape - Davidson Black o Peking Man Sianthropus pekinensis From Zhoukoudien China Early homo erectus - Louis Leakey (Leakey family) o Worked in east Africa Other direction of early biological anthropology research Variation in the morphology of modern humans why do we look like we do? What are the adaptive reasons? - concept of race - Survival of the fittest cultural diversity o Europeans on top of survival? Political support for colonization - Links human physical variability and individual behaviour o Identifies a physical stereotype of a criminal based on bumps on skull, deep set eyes, protruding forehead etc. Biological Anthropology contribution to archaeology - Skeletal Pathologies o Greeks, Romans o Disease o Nutrition and nutritional stress o Skeletal stress and abnormal bone growth Developed through chronic stress from repetitive tasks Allowed scientists to make reasonable assumption on lifestyle, necessary survival tasks and place in society (ie: archer, grain-grinder, physician etc) o Social structure Access to food would be indicated by a healthier skeletal development and would point towards a lifestyle of heightened social status Access to labour would create a skeleton with few abnormal growths or bone stresses which would indicate that the individual performed few laborious tasks and was instead a thinking member of the social status - Bone Chemistry o Subsistance (diet) What the person ate may contribute to the understanding of their social status or the status of their tribe as well as to the types of plants which were available In this way subsistence tells not only about the lifestyle of the person but also about the genealogy of the flora which surrounded them o Geographical origins Bone chemistry can point to where the person was born which might be a place which differs greatly from their place of death. o Injuries / breaks May lead to details about how the individual made their livelihood (ie: warrior lifestyles would result in a greater number of stresses and fractures than a farming lifestyle) May also lend clues towards possible interpersonal violence within tribes, or with neighbouring tribes Classification / Taxonomy Carl Linnaeus - Created a way by which to classify plant and animal life - Binomial classification system o Levels of classification from kingdom Phylum class etc species subspecies Lecture 2 Fixity of the species the idea that all life is fixed (no evolution)
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