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Final Exam Study Notes.doc

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ARCH 131
Dennis Sandgathe

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Unit and/or Term, concept or objective Definition or description text page reference 1, transcripts, Explain the changes that were needed in The first major change in thinking that was needed was an slides 14-30 traditional thinking in order for understanding of the extreme age of the earth. systematic, objective research into the The second major necessary change was an understanding origins of modern humans to begin. of the extreme age of human history. The third necessary change in thinking was about the mutability of organic life—'evolution'. 1, Describe what observations led to these 1. extreme age of the earth: 1785 James Hutton (Scottish transcripts, changes. geologist) recognized that the processes changing the earth slide 17, Related terminology: had been going on all along in a slow “deposition and slide 20, Law of Uniformitarianism: geologically erosion by wind, water, and gravity.” Then Charles Lyell slide 24 ancient conditions were the same as of (1835) argued that the earth is very old. ‘uniform to’ those of today. Evolution: change in the gene pool of a 2. extreme age of human history: discovery of tools population from generation to generation associated with fossils of extinct animals led to an 1859 by such processes as mutation, natural paper at the Royal Society of London supporting Boucher de selection, and genetic drift. Perthes’ claims. (slide 23) Lamarckianism: a theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics 3. Part of the problem with this change is that the concept Natural selection: the process by which of the mutability of species contravenes a literal reading of forms of life having traits that better the Bible and so many (see Cuvier, slide 27) were violently enable them to adapt to specific opposed to the idea but the kinds of things that were noticed environmental pressures, as predators, were animal breeding and the changes brought to species changes in climate, or competition for by people. What Darwin did was come up with a mechanism food or mates, will tend to survive and of that change. (Natural selection). reproduce in greater numbers than others of their kind, thus ensuring the perpetuation of those favorable traits in succeeding generations. 1 Identify who were the important figures • Irish Archbishop, James Ussher/the guy who said that played roles in these developments. that the world was created in 4004 BC on Sunday, October 23 at 9a.m. (slide 8) • Johann Fuhlrott, school teacher, found the original Neandertal skeleton (slide 12) • Hermann Schaaffhausen German biologist, the guy Johann Fuhlrott brought the skeleton to (slide 12) • Rudolf Virchow famous pathologist who said that the skeleton was a diseased modern person (slide 13) • James Hutton geologist (slide 17) “Law of Uniformitarianism” • Charles Lyell argued the age of the earth based on Hutton’s work (slide 18) • John Frere, farmer found stone tools in association with the bones of extinct animals (slide 20) • Jacques de Boucher de Perthes did something similar to Frere (slide 21) • Hugh Falconer went to see Boucher de Perthes findings and presented a paper in London in 1859 which was “the turning point in scholarly thinking” (slide 23) • Jean-Baptise Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck the theory that changed could be acquired by behaviour, like the giraffe’s neck stretching making it a long-necked animal (slide 25 and 26) • George Cuvier the guy who wanted species to be fixed and unchangeable so the Bible would be right (slide 27) • Erasmus Darwin (Charles’ grandfather) speculated on evolution (slide 28) • Charles Darwin (came up with a feasible mechanism by which evolution could work and published it in Origin of Species’ (slide 28) • Alfred Russell Wallace who came up with a similar theory independently (slide 28) • Thomas Henry Huxley Darwin’s bulldog (slide 30) Gregor Mendel (originator of genetics) (slide 31) • Eugene Dubois, the man who discovered Pithecanthorpus in Java (slide 3 from transcripts part 2) (missing link concept) 1 Outline what other directions, other than A major area of research in biological anthropology involves slide 10 & 11 investigating human origins, this area of studying the variation in the morphology and physiology of in transcripts research has taken over the years. modern humans part 2 For example—researchers are asking “why do we look like we do?” That is to say, we’ve evolved from previous hominin forms, so what are the adaptive reasons for our current form? Also—for many years now, biological anthropologists have examined the concept of “Race”— Biological Anthropology has also contributed significantly to archaeology— 1 Explain the need for classification and Early biologists were faced with the most daunting task—to slide 12-18 how it plays an important role in human take all the millions of living organisms they could observe in transcripts origins research. and try to organize them into some sort of manageable, part 2 Related name: Carl Linnaeus and understandable system. Deciding how to organize all the binomial classification system in Homo fossil remains that we have discovered so far is not easy erectus, the first of the two terms Homo and there is always at least a little, and often times, a lot of is the genus and erectus is the species. disagreement among researchers. But it’s necessary, There are 7 levels of classification because otherwise the data remains in a big jumble and ordering the biotic world. researchers can’t effectively discuss their ideas or communicate these ideas to the public. 2 Provide a general outline of when and the first people to talk openly about evolution were botanists, transcript 2.1 where theories about the evolution of life zoologists and naturalists (slide 7) first appeared and who the major John Ray developed the concept of species and genera contributors to this new way of thinking (slide 8) were. Linneaus made the classificatory system (slide 9) Related term: catastrophism (Cuvier Buffon (slide 10) published “The Natural History of Man”, he argued that the fossil record of a region calculated the earth to be 75,000 years old could be explained by the occurrence of Lamarck posed the idea that one could inherit acquired occasional catastrophic events, floods, characteristics (slide 11) earthquakes, etc (slide 12) Cuvier tries to adapt the theory of catastrophism to keep the Biblical account (slide 12) The Charles Darwin goes on the HMS Beagle and spends 5 years on a scientific expedition circling the globe and in that with his own observations (including the Galapagos Islands (slide 16-18), gets the data he needs to come up with the idea of Natural Selection Explain the general premises upon which Premise 1 (slide 4), more offspring are produced by a the theory of Natural Selection is based. species than could be supported by naturally available food supplies. This means not all offspring will survive to reach Related term: Speciation the formation maturity and reproduce, therefore there will always be of new species as a result of geographic, competition between the members of a species for survival. physiological, anatomical, or behavioral Premise 2, (slide 7) Within any population of similar factors that prevent previously individuals (a species of plant or animal) there exists a interbreeding populations from breeding significant amount of biological variability with each other. Premise 3, (slide 8) Since only a portion of the total number Random genetic drift: in which traits of offspring can survive to reproduce, those with any that have no apparent value for survival inherent advantages or favourable traits will have an edge potential become dominant or common over other members of their species in terms of their in the population of a region (slide 16, potential to live longer. transcript 2.2) Premise 4 (slide 10), The result is that within a population, those individuals that have any traits that provide them with advantages within the environmental conditions they face will be more likely to live long enough to reproduce successfully. Premise 5 (slide 11), Those traits that are advantageous under the current environmental conditions will be passed on to subsequent generations. Premise 6 (slide 12), Over long periods of time, trends in natural selection will result in significant changes within a species and eventually result in new species. This is called Speciation. Premise 7 (slide 15), the process of speciation is often aided by geographic isolation List the fundamental components that component 1 of the inherent variability in the traits or result in Natural Selection and drive the characteristics in a species (slide 18-19) process of Evolution. component 2 natural selection can only act on the variation Common misconception that evolution that already exists in a species (slide 20) is progressive, that it is moving in a component 3 natural selection can only act on genetic specific, purposeful direction variability (slide 22-23) Fitness refers to the differential potential component 4 natural selection can only play a role in the for reproductive success of individuals selection of traits that affect the reproductive success of an within a species (slide 27) individual (slide 24-26) Unit 2 terms microevolution (slide 28) Phyletic Gradualism (slide 30) not already - minor changes that occur within a - result of a gradual accumulation of genetic covered specific breeding pop. – will make it differences between different but related breeding slightly different from other breeding pop. populations of the same species – changes are not - but now how evolution appears to have occurred in significant enough to prevent both the fossil recor breeding populations from successfully Punctuated equilibrium (slide 32) interbreeding - species go through very long periods in which there is little if any change macroevolution (slide 28) - periods are interrupted by occasional, very short - occurs over longer period of time periods of time in which major changes occur and we and involves more significant get genetic branching genetic change and ultimately - very sudden change in forms – what we see in fossil results in populations that can no The Scientific Method (text page 14) longer interbreed 1. observe - process of speciation 2. induce general hypothesis/possible explanation 3. deduce specific things that must also be true if hypothesis is true 4. test hypothesis by checking out the deduced implic. Theory (text page 15) adaptive radiation (slide 30) - an explanation - species spread into a variety of Hypothesis (text page 16) somewhat diverse environments and Consilience (text page 64) then isolated groups fail to continue to - convergence or agreement among results achieved by interbreed and gradually diverge several methods genetically until they can no longer interbreed Lumpers and splitters (text page 17) Sexual selection (text page 56) 2 List some of the major unanswered (slide 30-31) the idea of how speciation actually occurs (like questions about how Natural Selection adaptive radiation where a species spreads into a variety of works and evolution occurs. somewhat diverse environments and then gets isolated and they fail to interbreed so gradually diverging genetically) now ??? called Phyletic Gradualism, but the fossil record doesn’t Here’s a good site show this. (slide 32) so the idea of Punctuated Equilibrium was suggested saying that the species go through long /futuyma.html/ stable periods and then suddenly major changes occur and there is genetic branching (could be related to climatic change) 3.1 Summarize the general historical When Darwin wrote On the Origin of Species he had no idea background about how people use to how traits were being passed on from one generation to the think about inheritance of traits from next. (slide 2). The idea at the time that there was some sort parents to offspring, prior to Mendel’s of blending or averaging of traits inherited from mother and work. father then passed on to the offspring.(slide 3). There seemed to be blending with skin colour and facial features but not with other things. .3.1 Describe the nature of Mendel’s He used the common garden pea and tried to determine the slides 10 experiments with peas—how he went nature of hybridization, the mixing of breeds. (slide 10) He through 20 about investigating how inheritance crossed individual pea plants which had contrasting works. characteristics (e.g. wrinkled vs smooth seeds, yellow vs Mendel game green seed, tall vs short stems, and used 7 major characteristics in all (slide 11) ? game=15&age=2&PHPSESSID=3245ee c486dfb35089a3cd1459b021c8 3.1 Demonstrate how Punnett squares work look at this slide 15 with both monohybrid and dihybrid slide 18-19 crosses. Dihybrids come in at about 06:50 monohybrid cross crossing plants that differ in only one characteristic dihybrid cross crosses where the parent plants differed in 2 characteristics 3.1 Define Mendel’s three main principles. Principle of Segregation that offspring inherit one discrete slide 20-21 unit or particle for a trait from each parent The Principle of Dominance and Recessiveness some expressions of a specific trait are dominant over others (i.e. round over wrinkled for seed shape) The Principle of Independent Assortment different traits were not inherited together as packages, they passed from generation to generation as independent units 3.1 Outline the problems with Mendel’s 1. by chance he had chosen 7 traits that were monogenic slide 22 research and his conclusions. traits (which follow Mendelian Inheritance principles) monogenic traits - those that are 2. some of his results were contrary to his principle of influenced by single genes Independent assortment and indicated that, in fact, some polygenic traits - those that are dictated traits were linked together (slide 23) by multiple genes (i.e. human skin 3. the traits Mendel examined were types that are expressed colour) as discrete categories (green or yellow, not greeny-yellow) (slide 24) some traits are on a continuum, like human height 3.2 Describe the most basic structure of an 1 cell or plasma membrane slide 5, animal cell and the role these cells play 2 cytoplasm cell structure in both the functioning of an organism 3 organelles (including: nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, slide 7 (somatic cells and protein synthesis) and endoplasmic reticulum protein the reproduction of an organism (sex production, cells and DNA replication). cell wall is the boundary of the cell. It contains and regulates prokaryotic cells - single-celled transport of material into and out of the cell. It also organisms, first life on earth, today as coordinates/ communicates with adjacent cells. blue-green algae and bacteria cytoplasm is the fluid/gel matrix of the cell interior eukaryotic cells - nucleus houses DNA and is bounded by its own nuclear began as single celled organisms but are membrane the type of cell that multi-cellular mitochondria responsible for energy production for the cell organisms like us are composed of, (via ATP), has its own DNA appear about 600 mya ribosomes protein synthesized from amino acids here - somatic cell any cell of the organism critical function body, i.e. not sperm and ova or germline endoplasmic reticulum long, folded membranes that provide sex cells and extended surface for numerous ribosomes to attach protein complex molecule composed of themselves and increase the area in which protein synthesis different amino acid chains (slide 6) can occur (about 90,000 different proteins; 20 different amino acids) sex cells and DNA replication 3.2 Explain the role that DNA and RNA play watch this slide 7, in protein synthesis. 1 messenger RNA enters the nucleus and the pertinent protein codons a series of 3 adjacent bases in section of DNA “unzips” and allows the messenger RNA production one polynucleotide chain of a DNA or ‘mRNA’ to access it RNA molecule, which codes for a specific 2 mRNA reads the DNA sequence and then leaves the amino acid nucleus and moves to the ribosomes 3 tRNA (transfer RNA) translates the mRNA coding and constructs the protein by binding itself to the appropriate amino acids available in the cell and bringing them together 3.2 Describe the structure of DNA. discovered in 1950s by James Crick and Francis Watson slide 10-11 (and Rosalind Franklin), is a double helix in shape - there Watch this - are two sides of the helix (ladder), the sides of the ladder are composed of sugar and phosphate molecules. The v=qy8dk5iS1f0 rungs of the ladder are joined by a nitrogenous-based molecule. There are 2 classes of nitrogenous bases: Purines (adenine [A] and guanine [G]) and Pyrimidines (cytocine [C] and thymine [T]) 3.2 Define what a gene is and what an allele gene each discrete coding sequence for protein, in the slide 12, is. whole DNA sequence slide 18-19 aallele any of several forms of a gene, gene - the basic physical unit of heredity; a linear sequence usually arising through mutation, that are of nucleotides along a segment of DNA that provides the responsible for hereditary variation. - coded instructions for synthesis of RNA, which, when “each gene will be represented by 2 translated into protein, leads to the expression of hereditary alleles, one from each parent’s genetic character. contribution.” “Alleles are different versions of a specific gene. 3.2 Outline the process of mitosis. mitosis is the process of cell division and the multiplication slide 21-25 of somatic cells. each cell starts with 46 single-stranded v=VlN7K1-9QB0 chromosomes, 23 from father and 23 from mother. This is the normal diploid condition. Next within an individual cell The primary result of mitosis is the each chromosome duplicates itself, resulting in 2 identical transferring of the parent cell's genome strands joined by a centromere (this results in 46 double- into two daughter cells. stranded chromoso (interames … ctive animation with all phases) 3.2 Outline the process of meiosis. special type of cell division to produce gametes, called sperm and egg cells, similar to mitosis but differs in 2 mQS_FZ0 important aspects: 1. the chromosomes in meiosis undergo a recombination The primary purpose of meiosis is to which shuffles the genes producing a different genetic divide the reproductive diploid cells into combination in each gamete, compared with the co- haploid cells for reproduction. existence of each of the two separate pairs of each chromosome (one received from each parent) in each cell which results from mitosis. 2. the outcome of meiosis is four (genetically unique) haploid cells, compared with the two (genetically identical) diploid cells produced from mitosis. (interactive animation with all phases) 3.3 State the modern definition of “evolution.” change in the gene pool of a population from generation to slide 2, 3 population - refers to a group of generation by such processes as mutation, natural interbreeding organisms selection, and genetic drift. gene pool - refers to all the different also see text page 52 description of evolution “as currently genes and their various expressions conceived” from Jerry Coyne (alleles) that exist in the DNA of an entire “Life on earth evolved gradually beginning with one primitive population. These are all the different species...that lived more than 3.5 billion years ago; it then traits that the offspring of members of a branched out over time, throwing off many new and diverse population have the chance of inheriting species; and the mechanism for most (but not all) of genotype the underlying genetic makeup evolutionary change is natural selection” of an individual phenotype the exterior, observable traits of an individual, the physical expression of an individual’s genotype 3.3 Identify the two major components of the internal sources of variability in allele types and slide 6 evolutionary process. frequencies, the creation of genetic variability within individuals upon which the evolutionary process can act external factors that can act upon the variability in these allele frequencies, the natural selection process 3.3 Identify the three sources of genetic recombination, which occurs as either random assortment slide 7-14 variability. of chromosomes or crossing-over 1. random assortment of chromosomes during mieosis (slide 8 & 9) v=roA3Q4lGOLQ (part 1) 2. crossing over (slide 10) - during tetrad stage of sex cell reproduction, after the chromosomes have arranged in pairs v=6tVC057ipm4&feature=relmfu (part 2) and duplicated themselves, but before they divide into 4 or individual gametes, they may randomly exchange sections of their DNA sequences. annotation_id=annotation_623227&featu random mutations re=iv&src_vid=YcvWnsiQycc&v=- 3. (slide 11-12) - occur at very low rates, “is the ultimate mPCqYxB4d4 source of all genetic variability, it is the only source of new (part 1 - how does variety arise) alleles, but still acts a minor role in the short term annotation_id=annotation_569040&featu re=iv&src_vid=- mPCqYxB4d4&v=YcvWnsiQycc (part 2 - how does variety give rise to new species) 3.3 List four major external processes that 1. non-random mating - can affect allele frequency, acts as slide 15-29 act on genetic variability. a kind of artificial selection, occurs because it is easier to sexual selection slide 19 - a specific mate with a nearby partner than potential ones that are type of non-random mating, typically along way away, and other such human reasons, can result occurs as a result of competition for in the increased persistence of some traits within smaller, mates localized populations (slide 16-19) founder effect is a particular type of 2. migration or gene flow - the exchange of genes genetic drift, when a very small number between different populations, more significant in human of individuals end up contributing to the history than nonrandom mating, especially in last 500 years, gene pool, generally occurs due to may be preventing speciation (slide 20) geographic isolation, create genetic 3. random genetic drift is chance change in allele bottlenecks (slide 25-28) frequencies towards a specific pattern - random movement within a gene pool towards greater proportions of specific alleles, blonde hairs is a possible example of Random Genetic Drift, also green eyes(slide 21-28) 4. natural selection plays the most important role, especially over the long term, Individuals who carry genetically-based advantages (faster, smarter, stronger, better able to digest a wide range of foods) will tend to pass their genes (with the advantages) to their offspring who will have a reproductive advantage (slide 29) 4.1 Explain where primates (including us) fit Animal Kingdom->Phylum Chrodata(spinal cords)->Class within the structure of the animal Mammalia-> Infraclass Eutheria->Order Primata kingdom. 4.1 Identify the nine major anatomical 1. Grasping hands with opposable thumbs(technically characteristics that, as a suite, define the “prehensibility”) Order Primates.(slides 9-28) 2.Nails instead of Claws 3. Forward facing eyes give us stereoscopic vision, that is, better depth perception(we see the world in 3D) 4. Generalized body plan( bodies are designed for a number of different habitats, walk climb run swim etc.) 5.Well developed Olfactory systems(sense of smell) 6. Colour vision 7. Petrosal Bulla (bone covering that protects the inner ear) 8. Post orbital Closure(rear of the eye socket is completely enclosed) 9. High Degree of Encephalization( larger brain size, relative to body size) 4.1 Identify the two major life history traits of 1. Usually only a single offspring at a time, with long primates. gestation periods leading up to a larger body size relative to (slides 30-32) mother at birth 2. Ontogeny(physical lifecycle) is longer stages(example, longer childhood) 4.1 Describe the one all-important Sociality behavioural trait in primates and the ●Live in large groups governed by either males or females different forms that it takes on in different (baboons) primate species. ●One dominant male with several females and their (slides 33-34)) offspring (silverbacks) ●Male ranking depends on the ranking of their mothers (chimps) ●Female centered groups (bonobos) 4.2 Outline the major stages in primate Initial Appearance: As a tree-shrewlike animal evolution starting with their initial First Radiation(Late Cretaceous-100-65 mya): Changes in appearance. tooth morphology, implied changes in diet Second Radiation (Paleocene-65-55 mya): 3 important traits turn up in two major forms: one group similar to modern lemurs, the other similar to tarsiers. Grasping hands, flattened nails instead of claws and vision beginning to dominate are characterstics that begin to appear as well. Reflected in a reorganisation of the face and brain. Third Radiation (early or mid Eucene, 55-45 mya): Appearance of monkeys(primitive higher order primates), arboreal quadrapedalism, greater encephalization and reliance on vision. Fourth Radiation (late Ogliocene/early Miocene, 30-20 mya): Differentiation into two groups, apes and monkeys. Main difference was diet and dentition.Both groups were likely still arboreal. Fifth and Final Radiation (late Miocene, after 17 mya): First apes, larger species with torso and limbs designed for hand- over-hand climbing. Appearance of thicker tooth enamel and reduction in canines 4.2 Identify the two primate families currently From the second radiation; thought to be the earliest. Adapidae(lemur like) Omomyidae(tarsier like) 4.2 Identify the five genera of primates (for Aegyptopithecus which we have the best fossil evidence) that mark major stages along the primate Proconsul family tree.(slides 14-22) Dryopithecus *A little unsure for this section Sivapithecus-thick enamel Gigantopithecus-likely the largest primate that has ever lived, only have a mandible and a few teeth as fossil evidence 4.2 Explain the major anatomical changes Thicker enamel, greater sexual dimorphism, that occurred throughout this period. (slides 14-22) 4.3 Outline the major groupings of the living suborders: primates: at the Suborder, Infraorder, Prosimii (Prosimians) ->superfamilies: Lemurs, lorises and and Superfamily levels.(slide 3) tariers. *If they expect us to remember all this i’ll Anthropoidea (Anthropoids, includes all monkeys apes and be very sorely disappointed humans)->Infraorders: Platyrrhini(new world monkeys) and Catarrhini(old world monkeys and apes, including humans) Platyrrhini->Families:Callitrichidae and Cebidae Catarrhini-> Family: 1. Cercopithecidae->1a.Cercopithecines and 1b.Colobines 2.Hominoids(superfamily)-> 1a.Hylobatidae,1b.hominidae->hominini 4.3 Describe the major anatomical Prosimii are generally considered less evolved as a whole characteristics that distinguish these They have protruding incisors called dental combs for groupings. grooming and some have specialized claw toes 4.3 Indicate the general geographic distribution of these groupings; 4.3 Describe, specifically, what distinguishes Apes are much more like humans than any other primate. the great apes from other primates. 1. Apes are usually larger and heavier than monkeys. 2. Apes have no tail. 3. Apes have a more upright body posture than monkeys, and are often able to walk on 2 legs. 4. Apes have a broad chest. 5. Apes rely on vision rather than smell, and thus have shorter noses than some monkeys. 6. Apes have a large brain to body size ratio compared with other animals. 7. Apes only live in Africa and Asia (monkeys also live in South America). 4.4 Summarize what modern primate studies Primatology is the study of living non humans in order to involve, when modern approaches to obtain clues to how early humans may have behaved and primate studies first emerged, and who why we evolved the way we did. some of the important figures were. (Slides 2-3) Modern primatology resulted from a major change in the 1960s, which then led to studies lasting at the very least, months, in order to be considered valid. Jane Goodall and her work with chimpanzees were among the first of such studies followed by Dian Fossy’s work with mountain gorillas and Birute Galdikas work with Orangutans. 4.4 List what the obvious advantages to - Ready access to multiple partners intensely social behaviour are. - a means of dominance without brute strength (Slide 8) - protection from predators and easier access to food 4.4 Explain how the adaptive strategies of Reproductive Assymetry males and females are different. The reproductive capacities of males are nearly infinite, while females, once they are impregnated, are unable to become pregnant again for the duration of the gestation period. The young are also completely dependent on females for quite some time after they are born, thus limiting further their reproductive potential. Thus Males seek quantity while females seek quality 4.4 Compare the major types of non-human Reproductive Monogamy: when a couple stay together for primate societies/social systems in terms the sake of mating of the apparent adaptive advantages of each. Social monogamy: when couples stay together regardless of childs birthparent. One male-polygyny: As implied, one male with many females. The key difference between this and ‘harem’ is that the male may not have unilateral control over the group. Multi male polygyny: One male defending a multitude of females from other males is nearly impossible and highly stressing, so the male will share the females while attempting to maintain a priority of access. This produces a dominance hierarchy. This social system tends to produce the highest sexual dimorphism. Fission/Fusion polygyny: temporaray formation of groups that split apart and come back together repeatedly polyandry: one female with multiple males, very rare in primates 4.4 Describe the major components of 1. Achieving dominance over others of the same gender in reproductive strategies among primate their group. societies. 2. Degree of parental investment to the rearing of their young is a major factor that shapes social systems. 5 Explain that changes in climate occur at There’s seasonal climate change, and then there’s the various levels of resolution depending on average global temperature. Both occur within different time the time span and geographic range that frames, not to mention seasons vary by geographic range you view them in. as well. So looking at either one for climate changes will give different results. 5 Identify the dominant factors in global tectonic shift, orbital eccentricity. Both can cause significant climate change when we view it at the changes in climate. Tectonic shift can divert large ocean scale of tens of millions or hundreds of currents, which can also have a major effect on climate, millions of years. such as the closing of the Tethys seaway. 5 Describe the dominant factors in climate Milankovic Cycles are changes in the earths tilt, wobble, and change over the last 2.5 million years orbit around the sun.All of these affect the intensity of the (i.e., Milanković Cycles). solar radiation that reaches the earth. 5 Describe the data available to climate Data found in deep sea ocean cores are recorded in the scientists that allow them to understand form of foraminifera, small creatures that trap oxygen within what past climatic conditions were like their shells. The ratio of the two different types of oxygen during a particular period. can tell us how much ice there existed at the time that particular foraminfera lived and how hot/cold it was during that period. Loess sequence in Asia. These records are taken from very deep deposits of loess, or windblown silts. Sites like these have been relatively undisturbed for hundreds of thousands of years, and so a core sample taken from these plains functions similarly to deep sea ocean cores. Lastly, polar ice cores 5 Explain how the Marine Isotope Record The marine isotope record is a graph of data taken from works. deep sea ocean cores. By graphing this data we can observe the glacial and interglacial sequences for the past two million years. Marine isotope stages are portions of the graph that correspond to a certain period of time. For example, we are in marine isotope stage 1, while marine isotope stage 2 was the last glacial maximum 25,000 to 13,000 years ago. 5 Summarize the general implications of Climate change and hominin evolution are clearly very climate change for human evolution and closely linked. Researchers have linked the long term drying the emergence of our modern human trend that began about 5 million years ago. For example, ancestors. bipedalism has been linked to the aridifcation of east africa. The increase in savannah like conditions may have forced our ancestors out from the tress, bipedalism would then be required to improve travel speeds and efficiencies since distances between woodlands would have greatly increased. 6.1 Identify the two main regions where early South and East Africa, especially in the countries of slide 2 hominin sites are found. Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia 6.1 Explain how the sites in these two In South Africa fossils have been found in caves but not in South Africa regions differ. East Africa. In East Africa fossils are recovered from very slides 3-12 dolina - vertical, limestone or dolomite thick stream and lake deposits spanning the Miocene, East Africa cave, that forms by weathering, the Pliocene, and Pleistocene, mostly in the eastern branch of slides 13 sediments covering the fossils, the Rift Valley. Kromdraai is an example of this and There are more sites and fossils recovered from East Africa included 2 adjacent caves (slide 9) than South. Sterkfontein is another example (slide 10) 6.1 Name the major sites in South Africa and South Africa: Kromdraai, Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, slide 3, slide the major sites and locales in East Africa Makapansgat 15 that were covered in this lecture. East Africa: Olduvai Gorge, Laetoli, West Turkana, Koobi Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis) found Fora, Omo, Middle Awash, and Hadar in Hadar region in the Afar Depression North-east Africa: (Afar Depression) Hadar, Kada Gona Identify the two fossil species that are, (Slide 11) Australopithecines which appear about 4 Mya but 6.2 currently, good candidates for being the two are: closest to the split between the apes and (slide 12) Sahelanthropus tchadensis / nick name: Toumai our hominin ancestors. (found in 2001 in South Sahara desert in Chad (neither Phylogeny the actual evolutionary South nor East Africa) 6-7 Mya at the time hominid line relationship between different organisms probably split from great apes Taxonomy classification of organisms nuchal line where the neck muscles attach to the back of based on current understanding of the cranium suggest Toumai’s head was held more erect phylogeny than apes, tooth enamel thicker like ours, relatively small Evolutionary Systematics uses both canines morphological and ecological evidence to (slide 13) Orrorin tugenensis discovered in Western Kenya reconstruct the most parsimonious in 2000, about 6 million years old, Orrorin’s incisors and explanation for past evolutionary canines are large and ape-like, but have very small molars, relationships and thick molar enamel, insertion points in femur where Phylogenetic trees are representations muscles attach suggest somewhat bipedal of the analysis of Evolutionary Systematics Phylogenetic Systematics employs cladistic analysis which uses only morphology, ignoring temporal dimension, and tries not to “weigh” different morphological features (doesn’t assume one feature is more or less important than another) Cladogram - the branching diagram that represents the analysis (p 108 in text) 6.2 Identify the three species that are (slide 16) Australopithecus anamensis, A. afarensis, A. Ardipithecus commonly placed in the genus africanus (a new one added in 2010, A. sediba) ramidus Australopithecus (along with the two that the 2 others some researchers include are Kenyanthropus 4.4Mya (slide some researchers also put in this platyops and Australopithecus aethiopicus (aka 15) genus).Describe the second major genus Paranthropus aethiopicus) from this early period, Paranthropus, and (slide 33-6) Australopithecus/Paranthropus aethiopicus may where in Africa its two common species be an ancestral form of later Paranthropus boisei and P. are found. robustus. P. robustus is South African, dated between 2 and 1 Mya “Nut Cracker Man” (slide 37-41) Paranthropus boisei is East African version of P robustus (nickname “Zinj”). Date to 2.3 and 1.2 Mya 6.2 State which of the above mentioned A. anamensis found in East Lake Turkana (slide 17) (East species are South African species and Africa) which are East African species. A. afarensis found mostly in the Hadar region of Ethiopia (East Africa) (slide 18) A. africanus_South African version of afarensis (slide 25) A. sediba_South Africa (slide 30) P. aethiopicus_Lake Turkana (slide 32) P. robustus_South African (slide 34-36) P. boisei_East African (slide 37-41) 6.2 Identify which of these genera and Slide 33, a majority of researchers see A. afarensis as a species are seen by the majority of very good candidate for the root of our own direct family tree researchers (but not all!) as the best candidates for being direct ancestors for us modern humans. 6.2 Outline some of the more important See here for chart of characteristics details of the skeletal anatomy of these various species: e.g., cranial capacity, %20comparative%20chart.pdf typical weight and stature, evidence that they were bipedal, important trends in dentition. 7 Identify the two earliest species of Homo 1) Homo habilis discovered so far. ● handy man ● may have been the first to make stone tools ● 2.5– 2.0 mya ● fossils: 1) KNM ER 1813 2) OH 24 ● a)expanded cranial capacity (compared to Australopithecines and Paranthropines) ○ 590– 710 cc ○ brain size increased relative to body size ● b) reduced molar size ○ more parabolic dental arcade ○ general flattening of the face (equates to reduced teeth size & parabolic dental arcade) ● c) advanced precision grip → aids in making stone tools ○ expanded apical tufts in the distal phalanges ○ obligate biped digital shortening enlargement of big to alignment of all 5 digits thickened metatarsal shaft fully developed double arch → efficient weight transmission at the ankle 2) Homo rudolfensis ● debated as to whether or not differs from habilis ● 2.3– 1.8 mya ● KNM-ER 1470 ○ marked constriction of the brain-case just behind the brow-ridge → H. erectus 7 Explain how are they different from each rudolfensis is different from habilis is the following ways: other. ● larger brain: 775cc (rudolfensis) vs. 600cc (habilis) ● larger cheek teeth ● smaller brow-ridge (a supraorbital torus) ● a longer, flatter face 7 List three characteristics that make these 1. the size of the teeth fossils distinctive enough from earlier 2. the large brain size hominin genera to be considered direct 3. the shape of the hand ancestors for later Homo sapiens. 7 Explain what the major issues are with ● Homo habilis is v. complicated to describe as few these two species, their taxonomic researchers agree on its traits or which specimens designation, and their potential are attributable to it relationship with later members of Homo. ● no postcranial remains associated with the rudolfensis species' cranial remains ● large brains and cheek teeth → cannot tell if due to larger body size than H. habilis ● some researchers see the larger brain and tooth size as indicative of increased body size, with rudolfensis and habilis constituting the same species (former males, latter females) ● some see rudolfensis as the ancestor of habilis w/ a decrease in brain size occurring, contrary to the general trend ● others see the two as completely different evolutionary lines ● the dating of the species is significant → if any new rudolfensis fossils date earlier than those of habilis, rudolfensis would be the first Homo species; w/ its v. large brain, it would be a better candidate for our direct ancestor 8 State the major hypotheses that have ● increased social interaction been put forward to explain our large ○ group social interaction is more cognitively brain size and the strong encephalization demanding & thus could select for a larger trend in our ancestors. brain keeping track of interaction w/ others ■ keeping track of interactions between all members ● development of language (outside of general group social behaviour – hunting or learning) ○ however, hunters working together hardly speak and most learning occurs through observation, trial and error ○ vocal socialization is most common within the main camp site ○ language developed to help to facilitate the interaction b/w individuals in highly complex social groupings → better able to express desires and intentions ● dissembling ○ language developed as a means to convince others that something false is true in one's own favour ○ such abstract thinking is v. complex and cognitively demanding and could have played a role in Encephalisation ■ adaptive advantage of language could have encouraged the development of cognitive abilities → but Encephalisation began long before language was thought to exist ● could be that development of language explains the jump in brain size 2mya 8 Explain what an Encephalization ● the ratio of brain size to body size Quotient is and why it’s important. ● indicator of intelligence ● larger brain does not necessarily equal greater intelligence ● EQ value suggests that a given species' brain is that many times what it should be relative to its body weight compared to an average for the whole class of mammalia ● important because reflective of increased intellect and thus increased adaptive advantage over environment and fellow species → helps to explain how we came to be on top 8 State the major hypotheses that have 1) freed up our front limbs for tool use been put forward to explain bipedalism in ● bipedalism appeared at least 4 mya and is thus older hominins. than the oldest stone tools, but tools of more easily decomposable materials could have been used prior to stone tools ● extreme dexterity of human hand played an incredibly important role in human adaptation → relying on handheld tools and being a quatruped are not likely to be compatible evolutionary developments 2) males provisioning females ● wider pelvis = easier childbirth, but bipedalism requires narrower pelvis ● thus babies are born with immature brains and are more dependent upon their mothers for longer ● mothers are thus less independent → carrying child = greater impetus for bipedalism and less opportunity to gather food for themselves ● mothers thus become dependent upon fathers for food acquisition; said fathers need their hands free to bring the food back to mother and infant ● need to be bipedal = selection for even narrower pelvis → birth even more difficult, especially in face of Encephalisation ● in order for females to maintain a male's interest in supporting her and her offspring, she would provide exclusive or priority sexual access in return 3) feeding posture ● the arboreal food gathering postures of arm-hanging and vertical climbing are sufficiently common to influence anatomy ○ e.g. chimps → bipedalism occurs during feeding ○ e.g. australopithecines were adapted to arboreal bipedal fruit gathering ● early and specalised origin of bipedalism only later evolved into habitual and obligate bipedal locomotion on the ground 4) thermo-regulation ● major climatic shift from cooler, wetter to hotter, dryer conditions at the time bipedalism emerged → forests & woodlands became grasslands and savannahs ● presumed move of hominins from forest to savannah → need to regulate body temperature ● bipedalism provides 2 advantages ○ 1) reduces surface area of body exposed to sun (top of head & shoulders vs. back & neck) ○ 2) moves majority of body mass away from group and thus away from higher temperatures need the group and closer to greater air movement higher up which helps to keep the body cooler even in very hot environment ● loss of body hair (in conjunction with bipedalism) would have 2 convective advantages ○ 1) more exposed skin increases evaporation level of perspiration → decreases temp. ○ 2) increases non-evaporative heat loss → reduces water requirements ● BUT bipedalism appears to pre-date the necessary climatic change of this hypothesis 5) the efficiency of locomotion ● bipedalism does not require energy to be expended on producing a forward momentum ● bipedalism is more energy efficient than quadrapedalism for low speed running and covering long distances ● low-velocity running energy efficiency is augmented by our evolved mechanisms for heat dissipation (i.e. loss of body hair → perspiration & non-evaporative heat loss) → prevents hyperthermia ● being able to run at low speeds for extended periods of time would have greatly expanded the foraging range of hominins in hot, dry, open environments; hominins would also have been able to safely leave a tree to find food and water during the mid-day heat whilst the predators were hiding from the sun in the shade 8 State the hypotheses that have been put ● hair loss has been linked to the development of forward to explain our reduced hair coverage. sweating to deal with thermoregulation in hot African environments ○ sweating over the whole body is a more efficient and a more rapid way to dissipate excess body heat than panting ● hair-loss has also been linked with the invention of clothing, but the evidence does not support this hypothesis 8 Explain the traditional arguments and ● hunting was the ready explanation for bipedalism hypotheses about the role that hunting and encephalisation and meat eating played in our evolutionary past. ○ bipedalism freed the hands for the manufacture & use of hunting weapons ○ encephalisation resulted from a need for increased cooperation and communication amongst hunters ● reduction in canines was thought to be an evolutionary response to the increased role of manufactured hunting tools ● sharing resulted from hunting ○ prior to hunting, individuals fended for themselves ○ hunting involved bringing kills back to the camp so as not to waste the large amount of food, thus resulting in sharing ● sexual division of labour: men hunted, women raised babies ● the nuclear family: male hunter provided sustenance for mate and offspring ● because men did all the hunting and were the dominant providers of sustenance, constant female sexual receptivity evolved so that the females could always keep the males interested enough that they would provide for the children through sharing the fruits of the hunt ● hunting led to the concept of territory and ownership ○ reliance on hunting lead groups to want to exclude other groups from exploiting the game in their region ● hunting led to increased body size ○ larger body = more effective hunting & ability to hunt larger prey ○ actually, moving from arboreal to terrestrial adaptation would have selected for a larger body due to the hominins need to be more confrontational in the face of terrestrial predators 8 Describe the type of data that ● Encephalisation researchers use to address this question. ○ bigger brain → other organs will suffer or diet needs to be of higher quality meat = more energy efficient source of nutrition than carbs from plants ● tools, hunting and diet amongst chimps ○ males hunt more, but females use tools more and not for hunting ○ seemto crave meat (use of small, crude spears by females) ● socialising amongst apes: female apes spend more time socialising which is more intellectually complex than hunting cooperation ● primate diets: plant foods are predominant ● modern Hunter-Gatherer group diets ○ meat = 25% → hunting success rates typically low ○ majority of food supplied by women gathering ○ scavenging provides greater proportion of meat supply than previously recognised (thought to be all hunting) ○ foraging higher in these groups because they have been pushed to the margins of their traditional territories by the encroachment of argriculturalists ● butchered animal remains in relation to stone tools with which they were butchered ○ meat eating has been an important component of our diet for at least the last 3 million years ● human digestive system ○ much more similar to carnivores than herbivores ○ shorter digestive tract because extracting nutrients from fats and proteins is an easier process than extracting them from plants ○ shorter tract also equals quicker digestion and thus less chance of becoming ill due to microbes and toxins associated with rotting meat 9.1 Describe when and where the species when: 2 million years ago Homo erectus first appeared. where: Africa 9.1 Explain some problems concerning the ● number of regionally distinct, yet similar fossil groups use of the term Homo erectus and the (African, Asian & European) different opinions about what fossils ○ disagreement surrounding where the lines should be placed in this category. should be drawn between and within these regional groups ○ European fossils have been given their own species name (H. heidelbergensis or H. antecessor) or are subsumed under “Archaic Homo” ● debate over the degree of similarity between the African and Asian fossils (3 perspectives) ○ 1) all the fossils represent a single, wide- spread species, with some notable regional variability ○ 2) the fossils should be split into the 2 groups of African and Asian, but with the Asian group having no direct connection with the later modern Homo sapiens sapiens, who presumably come from the African Homo erectus *Asian = Homo erectus; African = Homo ergaster H. erectus may have evolved directly from ergaster or the two are branches from a common ancestor ○ 3) H. erectus as a name should be completely discarded and all the fossils associated with it should be added to the species H. sapiens with some regional subspecies 9.1 Identify the basic cranial and post-cranial ● post-cranial features: features of Homo erectus skeletons. ○ shorter body than us on average ○ very robust bones → v. thick cortical bone (femur, tibia, humerus, radius) ● cranial features: ○ brain size is lower than ours, but their cc is significantly larger than their predecessors H. habilis and rudolfensis → mean of 950cc; as large as 1100cc (within our cc range) ○ very thick cranial bone ○ Taurodontism → enlarged pulp cavity in their molars ○ pentagonal shape → maximum width of skull
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