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ASC101_Final Exam Study Guide.docx

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Simon Fraser University
ASC 101
Tsuyoshi Kawasaki

Final Exam Study Guide World War II in Asia and the Pacific 1932-1945 Manchukuo domestic oppression in Japan 1937-1945 Japan invades China proper *Nanking Massacre of 1937 1940 Japan invades French Indochina *Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere 1940 Axis Pact among militarist Japan, Nazi Germany, and Fascist Italy December Pearl Harbor attack by Japan (Hawaii); Japan, the US, the UK, and 1941 the Netherlands in war; Japan attacks the Philippines, Hong Kong, Indonesia *Hong Kong veterans of Canada; Japan apologizes to them in 2011 August 1945 The US drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1945 Independence War starts in Asia after Japan’s surrender: two Koreas, Chinese civil war (which ended in 1949), Indonesians against the Dutch, Vietnamese (led by Ho Chi Mihn) against French Post-World War II Asia 1945 US occupation of Japan (under General Douglas MacArthur) starts; democratization reforms and a new constitution (including Article 9 that bans the use of force except for self-defence purposes) follow 1947 The Cold War Starts 1948 The Republic of Korea (President Syngman Rhee) and The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (Kim Il Sung as premier) are established 1949 People’s Republic of China (PRC) is established under Mao Zedong's Leadership, allying with the Soviet Union (the Republic of China on Taiwan under Chiang Kai-shek, allying with the United States). 1950-1953 Korean War (Canada send its troops under the United Nations); Cold War starts in Asia. 1951 San Francisco Peace Treaty is signed; US-Japan Security Treaty is signed (US bases remain in Japan); *Yoshida Doctrine (named after Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida)-a foreign policy of Japan to focus on economic growth rather than on military affairs while relying on the US-Japan alliance for military protection. 1955 The Liberal Democratic Party starts in Japan 1958-1959 Great Leap Forward in the PRC 1960 Japan’s economic miracle starts (*Japan, Inc.) 1965-1975 Vietnam War → boat people since the late 1970s 1966-1974 Cultural Revolution in the PRC 1967 ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) starts 1970 Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau recognizes the PRC 1972 US President Richard Nixon visits China; Sino-US diplomatic normalization 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 1979 Deng Xiaoping starts Four Modernizations including economic reforms 1989 Tiananmen Square Incident 1989 APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) starts 1990 The Cold War Ends 1994 US-North Korea Framework Agreement 1994 The ASEAN Regional Forum starts 1995 The Murayama Statement apologizing for Japan’s Asian invasions in the past 1996 The ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting) starts 1997 Asian financial crisis (most severely hitting Thailand, Indonesia, and South Korea) exposing limitations (underdeveloped financial sectors of these countries) and inviting the intervention of the IMF (International Monetary Fund) at the expense of domestic reforms 2003 The Six Party Talks starts 2005 The East Asia Summit starts The Cold War-the 1947-1990 global competition, driven by ideological differences, between the capitalist democracy camp led by the United States on the one hand, and the communist camp led by the Soviet Union on the other, which involved conflicts and competition in the areas of military, politics, economics, and culture. The capitalist democracy camp prevailed. The United States Domino Theory-the idea that once a Southeast Asian nation becomes communist, other neighboring countries in the sub-region would also become communist. McCarthyism-a US anti-communist witch-hunt in the 1950s, fearful of communist sympathizers and spies within the United States. China Marxism 1) the social theory of socio-economic evolutions throughout human history, in which each economic stage changes through a social revolution and in which the capitalist stage is to be overthrown by a socialist revolution (revolution by workers against capitalists) so that the socialist stage would appear, followed by the communist stage (the end of historical evolution) 2) the ideology of a communist/socialist party or government committed to a) Leninism-the idea that the Communist Party is the only revolutionary vanguard in causing a socialist revolution (under the Communist rule, no other political parties are allowed to exist) b) Stalinism-an excessive dictatorship (i.e., one person has absolute power) under the Leninist government Mao Zedong thought-the Chinese version of Marxism-Leninism espoused by Mao Zedong, in which peasants rather than workers would be the main revolutionary and ruling group. Japan Japan, Inc.-the model or image of Japan’s ruling elites since the economic miracle of the 1960s, in which the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), big business, and the central economic bureaucracy are thought to cooperate tightly for the sake of Japan’s economic growth as if they were running a private company. Bubble economy-the fast growth in the stock market and the real estate market between the late 1980s and the early 1990s, driven by a glut of money caused by very low interest rates as a result of the 1985 Plaza Accord. After the two markets collapsed, the Japanese economy, especially its financial sector, suffered from stagnation for more than a decade. Koizumi reforms (2001-2006)-a series of economic reforms conducted by Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, which deregulation and privatization were pursued to boost the sagging Japanese economy. Economics and Asian Culture Part I Industrialization in East Asia 1) Its historical significance: recall the previous lectures (cf. regional comparison, for example, with Latin America and Africa) 2) The challenge of industrialization and nation-building 2.1) Two general paths in the past: capitalism and socialism 2.2) Stages of economic development: 2.2.1) Agriculture, import substitution, export-oriented growth (from light industry to heavy industry to knowledge industry) 2.2.2) Flying geese model among Japan, NIEs, and ASEAN (an old view) explaining the pattern of economic development across Asian countries, led by Japan (the head goose), followed by NIEs first, then, followed by ASEAN countries. 3) Asian NIEs (Newly Industrialized Economies): South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong 3.1) Japan (Johnson: *capitalist developmental state) as a model for South Korea 3.2) Unlike Japan's case, more important role of foreign capital and technology 3.3) Relatively open US markets Part II Confucianism (Asian values) Confucius (551BC? – 479BC) Society as a hierarchy: each member behaving properly should lead to harmonious social order Five key relationships: lord/follower, father/son (filial piety), husband/wife, older brother/younger brother, and friendships (the first four are hierarchical) Expected reciprocity of benevolence and loyalty in a hierarchical relationship Family as the key social organization, between individuals and the nation The government as an "enlightened king" and a moral authority Additional virtues thought: hardworking, focus on education, etc. (Neo-Confucianism) * Note that there are sharp differences across Chinese, Korean, and Japanese versions st The Asia-Pacific Region in the early 21 Century 1) Multilateral institutions in the region 1.1) Non-governmental institutions PAFTAD (Pacific Trade and Development Conference) PBEC (Pacific Basin Economic Council) PECC (Pacific Economic Cooperation Council) 1.2) Government-to-government institutions APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) ASEAN Regional Forum Six Party Talks ASEAN Plus 3 East Asia Summit Trans-Pacific Partnership I.e. Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada, NAFTA, WTO, ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting), G-8; G-20; free trade agreements (e.g., Japan-Singapore free trade); Shanghai Cooperation Organization 2) Changing trans-Pacific regional order 2.1) The Pacific as the dividing zone in the 19th century to Pan-Pacific community in the 21st century – corresponding changes in the status of Asian Canadians in Canada 2.2) Transformation Stage 1) Power of the Western civilization reaching East Asia (from north, south, and east)-imperialism, colonialism, and racism Stage 2) Rise and fall of Imperial Japan Stage 3) Demise of Imperial Japan after World War II a) the Pacific Ocean became a US lake b) Cold War dividing nations along the edge of the Asian continent c) China (1949 - ) d) social norm of racism starts to decline in the West e) the withdrawal of European influences from East Asia Stage 4) The formation of the "Asia-Pacific region" in the late Cold War years a) increased economic growth and interdependence under supreme US military and economic power (US hegemony) b) the rise of economic multilateral organizations in the region c) Australia and New Zealand turning to Asia d) Japanese economic dominance since 1985 (Plaza Accord)-Japanese foreign investment in ASEAN (later to China) e) Chinese economic reforms since the 1980s – resulting rapid growth Stage 5) Post-Cold War years a) change and continuity since the Cold War b) US military and economic superiority remains c) strong economic interdependence in the region remains d) Asian communist nations remain e) the demise of the Soviet Union f) the democratization of South Korea and Taiwan g) continuing divides on the Korean peninsula and across the Taiwan straits h) the relative stagnation of the Japanese economy with aging population (Abenomics by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe may lift up the economy) i) the rise of
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