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BISC 100 Study Guide Lect exam 1 + Lab MT 1.docx

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Biological Sciences
BISC 100
Felix Breden

BISC 100 Study Guide - Lecture test I Lecture: Term Definition Biology Scientific study of life Life 1) Living forms capture energy from the environment 2) Reproduction  Imperfect copies lead to variation and modification of genes.  This is evolution 3 Domains of life Bacteria + Archea (prokaryotic) Eukarya (eukaryotic)  Humans  Animals  Plants Natural Selection Environment selects heritable traits (that will benefit the species survival) from existing ones. 1. Variation 2. Heritability 3. Fitness correlates with variation Artificial Selection Humans fuck with the selection process and pick what they like. Think corn and how grows faster cause we messed with it's genes Comparative Anatomy Comparing body structures of different species Homologous structures Different functions and different species but come from a common ancestor  resemble each other  result of DIVERGENT EVOLUTION  ex: human arm looks like a whale flipper Divergent evolution Common ancestor but the derivatives become more dissimilar over time  Ex: Whales and humans Vestigial Structures Remnants of ancestors  dont need them why da hell do we have them? Theyre just there  left overs  ex: appendix, tail bone Analogous structures Look the same and have pretty much the same function but come from different ancestors  Result of CONVERGENT EVOLUTION Ex: bat wing vs bird wing Convergent Evolution Similar features in different lineages  Different common ancestors but because of evolution they start to look alike  Ex: bird wings vs insect or bat wings Comparative Embrology Shows similaries in early stages that you cant see in a fully developed organism  look similar as embryos but when they grow up they look totally different Modern synthesis Darwin + mendell married awwww yeeeaaahhh Genotype Allele combination you have (make up)  Can have same genotype but different phenotype  ex: AA, BB, AB Phenotype How you look (traits) Hardy- Weinberg Equilibria Non evolving population  large populations Micro evolution Change in a populations allege frequency Macro evolution Changes in number and form of an organism/ species Genetic Drift An allee for a trait becomes more or less common by CHANCE or RANDOM events Bottleneck effect Form of genetic drift when mother earth decides to fuck with us and kill off a significant amount of the population  leaves small % of the population behind  less genetic variability with in population more outside of it (between populations) Founder Effect Some assholes decided to leave and make their own damn space  Low variability in the gene pool  small population  form of genetic drift Gene flow New mother fakas decided to enter your territory to increase the genetic variability with in it Directional Selection NS chooses the extreme! Disruptive Selection NS chooses the two extreme BAMFS Stabilizing selection NS chooses to be a dick and pick the middle ground Sexual Selection Oh baby you got da hot body  What da girls like mmmm baby Challenges to Darwin Assholes:  Fleming Jenkins (lmfao) BLENDING INHERITANCE Blending inheritance When things are crossed the offspring resemble the mean/ avg of the 2 parents Assortative mating Random mating changes genotype frequencies Speciation Process of 1 species spliting into two or more new species Biological Species Concept (BSC) Defines a species as a group or population with memebers that can interbreed and produces fertile offspring  excludes those self sex fucks (asexual reproduction)
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