BISC 101- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 29 pages long!)

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BISC 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1
(Week 1)
January 5, 2017
Midterm is 2 hours long; no lecture on February 23rd
Lab on Tuesday and Lab Quiz in Tutorial on Thursday
Midterm will be on Biological Macromolecules to Metabolism and Enzymes
Final will be on information from Cellular Respiration onwards
- Covalent bonds are very strong compared to other bonds which is why macromolecules are
composed of them.
Concept A
- Lipids are not polymers
- He asks many questions on the exam involving the differences between two related concepts
Concept B
- Enzymes take the linear structures in monosaccharides and transform them into ring structures
- Glycosidic Linkage
o Glucose and glucose (maltose) undergoes dehydration and is joined by the glycosidic
linkage
- Amylose is a linear structure unlike amylopectin
- Difference between alpha glucose and beta glucose monomer
o Positioning of hydroxyl group (alpha glucose is the down position and beta glucose is in
the up position)
- For cellulose the alternating positioning of the hydroxyl group is because it puts less strain on
the molecule
- Know which ones are branched and which ones are not, which ones are alpha and which ones
are beta, etc.
- Chitins are made up of a derivative of glucose called acetylglucosamine
Concept C
- Why are saturated fats solid and why are unsaturated fats liquid? (Can be an exam question)
- Amphipathic examples=steroids, phospholipids, detergents, etc.
- Amphipathic: contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic components
Concept D
- Do’t eorize all the exaples ad fuctios of proteis
- Enzymatic, Defensive, Storage, Transport Proteins, etc. are important
- Know the general structure of the amino acid
- We do not need to know which amino acids are polar or electrically charged but we should
know the general differences by just looking at the specific structural differences
- Why is the peptide bond so strong and difficult to break?
- Even with slight fever (2 or 3 more degrees Celsius) can start to unravel peptide bonds and
proteins
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Lecture 3
(Week 2)
January 12, 2017
Concept A
- Archaea are more related to us than bacteria
Comparing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
^Plasma (or cell) membrane
- Water is the only thing can freely pass through phospholipids
^DNA, the genetic material, is packaged into one or more chromosomes
^Contain ribosomes (small complexes where protein synthesis takes place
- Cytosol means cytoplasm
Distinguishing characteristics of prokaryotic cells
^“ice there is o ucleus…DNA is foud in a non-membrane bound region called the nucleoid
region
^Use binary fission, which is a type of asexual reproduction and cell division is which DNA is
copied and cell splits into two genetically identical cells
Distinguishing characteristics of eukaryotic cells
^Use mitosis, which is a type of asexual reproduction and cell division
Concept B
^Nuclear envelope encloses nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm
^DNA and proteins form genetic material called chromatin
*tight version is called chromosome and the loose packed version is called chromatin
^Nucleolus is located within nucleus and is site of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis
If he gives a picture of an organelle, you should be able to recognize that organelle and explain
its function (EXAM)
- Nuclear lamina=>gives the nucleus its shape
Functions of smooth and rough ER
- Smooth ER
o ^Largely associated with synthesis of lipids
o ^Detoxification
o ^Stores calcium ions
- Rough ER
o ^Has bound ribosomes, which are involved in production of proteins
Golgi Apparatus
^Consists of flattened membranous sacs (cisternae)
Lysosomes
^contains hydrolytic enzymes
Concept E
- Both plant and animal cells have ATP
Mitochondria
^They have a smooth outer membrane and an inner membrane folded into cristae
^Major site of cellular respiration
Chloroplasts: capture of light energy
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